This is a neutralization reaction between a strong acid and strong base. Therefore the heat of reaction (∆H2) is called as the heat of neutralization of HCl and NaOH solutions. The ∆H2 calculated from this experiment is -6.6944KJ/mol. This is because the enthalpy changes when one mole of H+ ions from an acid (HCl) reacts with one mole of OH- from an alkali (NaOH) to form one mole of water molecules under the stated conditions of the experiment. In the final reaction of the experiment (Part C), solid NaOH will react with an aqueous solution of HCl.
In the water molecules, hydrogen is slightly positive and oxygen slightly negative so they are attracted to ions of the opposite charge, known as dipole attraction. These water molecules break apart the bonds of a salt by surrounding themselves around the salt ions, with the opposite charges facing each other. Whether or not a salt dissolves is determined by which attractive force is stronger, the internal ionic force or the attraction for the ions from the water molecules (Ophardt, C., 2003). Potassium nitrate (KNO3) contains negative nitrate ions and positive potassium ions. When potassium nitrate is placed in water the slightly positive hydrogen’s in the water molecule are attracted to the nitrate ions and the potassium ions are attracted to the slightly negative oxygen.
The indicator Phenolphthalein was the substance used to signal when the titration reached the point at which the reactants are stoichiometrically equal as defined by the balance reaction equation. Phenolphthalein is a chemical compound with the formula C₂₀H₁₄O₄ and is often written as "HIn" or "phph" in shorthand notation. Often used in titrations, it turns colorless in acidic solutions and pink in basic solutions. Sodium hydroxide or Hydrochloric acid would not have been as effective or accurate because they would have reacted with the water vapor from the air. In this lab setup, graduated cylinders or beakers were not used.
Double Replacement Reactions & Table F When two substances undergo a chemical reaction, new substances are formed. A double replacement reaction is one type of reaction that can form soluble or insoluble products. The purpose of the lab was to figure out how the solubility of a substance (aqueous or precipitate) can be determined when a double replacement reaction happens. Precipitates are insoluble compounds. A precipitate is a solid product that comes out of solution in a chemical reaction.
8th Magnesium 12/5/11 Objectives: 1. Show the reactivity of Group 1A metals with water to produce hydrogen gas. 2. Demonstrate the dangerous dehydrogenation capability of sulfuric acid. Discussion: A and B are the elements while BC and AC are compounds.
The mixture was added to crushed ice and then mixed. Until there was visible granular ppts forming in the mixture. The ppt settled at the bottom and the liquid in the mixture is light yellow in color. The mixture was filtered thru suction and the ppt was washed with cold dH2O. Here is the acid-base reaction between nitric acid and sulfuric acid to form the nitronium ion.
Experiment 8 Ionic Reactions Karen Curry 11/4/2013 10:30am Chemistry 12011K Abstract The purpose of this experiment is to determine the precipitate when two aqueous solutions are mixed together. Then, writing an ionic equation to determine the identity of the soluble or insoluble compound. Experiment and observation I located the equipment I needed from the LabPaq and set up the 96 well plate. I set the chemical pipetes in the 26 well plate in the order that I was going to use them. Going horizontally, I started with cobalt (II) nitrate and placed 2 drops into seven of the A row wells of the 96 well plate.
Introduction In this lab, we performed three titrations to determine the mass of ASA in a caplet through the process of diluting the caplet with a solution of NaHO and isopropyl alcohol. The mixed solutions gave us a double displacement reaction. Double displacement: AB+CD = AD+CB Example: AgNO3 + NaCl = AgCl +NaNO3 This is a double displacement reaction. In the titration of HC9H7O4 = NaC9H7O4 + H2O A titration is a process in which a solution is added to another solution, such that it reacts under conditions in which the added volume may be accurately measured. Three titrations were performed to find the caplets mass.
Experiment #5: Ionic Reactions Abstract: The objective of this experiment is to observe the nature of ionic reactions within an aqueous solution, to write the net ionic equations for the precipitation reaction and to identify the solubility of each property. Experiment and Observations: The cations used in this experiment were Cobalt, Copper, Iron, Barium, and Nickel. The anions used were Phosphate, Iodide, Sulfate, Chloride, Bicarbonate, Carbonate, and Hydroxide. Using the 96-well plate, 2 drops of Cobalt (II) Nitrate, Co(NO3)?6H2O solution were placed within the first seven A row wells. Next, 2 drops of Copper (II) Nitrate, Cu(No3)2?3H2O solution were placed within the first seven B wells.
Hypothesis: The hypothesis is that the component ions of the solution can be identified. This is because each ion has different solubility conditions. Thus, using their difference in their solubility, the ions can be separated through the method of selective precipitation. After the separation, the ions can be confirmed through other means such as reacting with other substances to see the color change and etc. Materials: Materials Distilled water 0.2 M Silver nitrate (AgNO3) 0.2 M Copper(II) nitrate (Cu(NO3)2) 0.2 M Zinc nitrate (Zn(NO3)2) 0.2 M Iron(III) nitrate (Fe(NO3)3) 0.2 M Manganese(II) nitrate (Mn(NO3)2) 0.2 M Aluminum nitrate (Al(NO3)3) 0.2 M Potassium iodide (KI) 0.2 M Sodium bromide (NaBr) 0.2 M Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) 0.2 M Sodium chloride (NaCl) 0.2 M Sodium nitrate (NaNO3) 0.2 M Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) 6 M Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) 6 M Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) 6 M Nitric acid solution (HNO3) 6 M Acetic acid solution (CH3COOH) 6 M Hydrochloric acid (HCl) 6 M Ammonia solution (NH3) 0.1 M Barium chloride (BaCl2) 0.1 M Silver nitrate (AgNO3) 0.1 M Potassium ferrocyanide (K4Fe(CN)6) 0.1 M Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) 0.1 M Potassium thiocyanate (KSCN) Aluminum granules (Al) Saturated barium hydroxide (Ba(OH)2) 0.1% Aluminon 3% Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) Mineral oil Quantities 25 mL 5 mL 5 mL 5 mL 5 mL 5 mL 5 mL 5 mL 5 mL 5 mL 5 mL 5 mL 5 mL 8 mL 10 mL 10 mL 10 mL