However there are other possibilities as to why this structure was built the way it was. It could have been built that way due to the Greek influence on architecture, or it could have been due to the alliance built with the Attalids after the Macedonian wars. The Porticus Octavia is a structure that shows us exactly what the Hellenization of Rome was. Due to its similar structure and form as many Greek buildings it is assumed that Octavius was modeling his monument after the Greek war monuments. This helps to reach a better understanding of why Hellenization actually occurred in Rome.
What were the implications of his actions on the Republic? - Why was society well-governed during the Pax Romana? How did Augustus help stabilize society? - What achievements are credited back to Rome? How did Romans improve upon the arch and dome styles set forth by the Greeks?
The rectangular temple, like the Parthenon, is the most well-known form of Greek public architecture. They used “post and lintel” type construction, which is composed of vertical and horizontal beams. The vertical members are called posts and the horizontal members are called lintels. Greek architecture uses three orders the Doric, Ionic and the Corinthian orders. The three orders of columns used so deliberately on different temples and structures depending on who the temple was being built for.
Eventually this anti-physical attitude will correlate with the development of Early Christian Art. Roman illusionist painting, also known as trompe l’oeil (or “fool the eye”) was attributed to an earlier tradition that developed in Greece. Like painting, mosaics originated in Greece but were common in Rome during the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. A large quantity of Roman craft art also survived, including coins, glass vases, and cameos. Key Terms / Places / Names Aisle Amphitheater Apotheosis Aqueduct Arch Atrium Barrel vault Baths Bay Calidarium Cella Chi Rho Circus Coffer Colonnade Collosseum Concrete Domus Drum Engaged columns | Extrados Forum Frigidarium Groin vault Haunch Illusionism Insula Intrados Medallion Menorah Narthex Nave Niche Oculus Patrician Peristyle Pilaster Podium Pronaos Peripteral Pseudo peripteral Remus | Reah Silva Romulus Rotunda Sanctuary Sarcophagus Springing Stadium Tablinum Tepidarium Tetrarchs Thermae Toga Triumphas Arch Veneer Voussoir
The key points in chapter 2 are the Greek Dark Ages, the Archaic Era, and the Classical Era that define the development of the Greek culture in western civilizations. The idea of ethical monotheism and they believe in rational or scientific inquiry from the Greeks are the two main concepts that provide the foundations of Western thoughts and beliefs. The Greek origin originated from the Minoans and Mycenaean’s civilizations. The Minoans developed mythology in the struggles of Greeks Heroes between arête and hubris. Arête represents the individual competition to achieve excellence in culture.
INFLUENCE OF GREEK AND EGYPIAN CULTURES: ART, ARCHITECTURE, RELIGION * Pompeii and Herculaneum were both Greek settlements * Herculaneum – the name itself is influenced by Greek’s Hercules * Greek influences can therefore be seen in their art, architecture and especially religion * Influences from Egypt came through trade * One of the greatest influences was through religion Art * Themes found in wall paintings include Greek mythology and gods * Paintings were often Greek originals * Statues copied Greek designs * Floor mosaics showed Egyptian influences e.g. the House of Faun has a mosaic of flora and fauna along the Nile River Architecture * Early buildings in Pompeii and Herculaneum were designed with Greek constructions * Features e.g. Greek peristyle garden were taken from a Greek design * Greek columns – Doric, Ionic, Corinthian were used in temples & other buildings * The Triangular Forum with its Doric Temple was of pure Greek origin * The theatres owe their designs to Greek originals * Remains of furniture appear to be based on Greek prototypes * Herculaeum has good examples of cupboards with a Greek design * The palaestra of Pompeii and Herculaneum are in the Hellenistic architectural tradition * A style of Greek architecture popular after the time of Alexander the Great Religion * The Greek gods and goddesses – Apollo, Hercules, Minerva, Dionysus, Hermes, Demeter were all worshiped at Pompeii and Herculaneum * Temples were built for this purpose * Dionysian themes were popular artistic decoration * The Egyptian goddess, Isis, was worshipped at Pompeii and Herculaneum by merchants, women, children, slaves, freedmen and soldiers along with officials * Some houses had garden shrines to Isis and statuettes of pharaohs and other Egyptian deities
According to abrahamlincolnonline.org, “New York architect Henry Bacon modeled the memorial in the style of a Greek temple. The classic design features 36 Doric columns outside, symbolizing the states in the Union at Lincoln's death”. Furthermore, the District also has another Rome like arcutecture which is the Jefferson Memorial. This particular memorial is very similar to the Pantheon in Italy, Rome, in difference; I came to realize that Washington D.C has a very strong relation with Roman artifacts when it comes to historical landmarks. I assume that with research I will be able to discover may other buildings and sculptures that have been heavily influenced by ancient history.
The Classical City of Olympia The classical Greek city has a variety of certain styles that have proven to be typical for the time period which the cities had been erect and populous. The chief building material used in ancient cities was stone, with the exception of the timber and roof ceiling. Buildings were decorated with terra-cotta and everything was marble cut in large blocks which were fastened together with clamps and dowels. How the ancient Greeks used lighting is also a distinguishing characteristic of their ancient cities. They also knew how the light interacted with the architecture to create seemingly massive and overpowering spaces that defined their building shapes and colors.
Throughout this process of change, Athens held a grip on the moral validity of its actions, due to the aims and practices, especially the oath, of the Delian League. This enabled it to enforce its rule on the other members and use the League for its own purposes, and thus turn the Delian League into an Athenian empire. NOTE that because Thuc thought these were significant, then they probably were! The first of Thucyides’ paradigms is the siege and capture of Eion in 476-75BC. The League’s actions here removed a potentially dangerous base for the Persians.
Greek architecture begins with the simple houses of the Dark Age and culminates in the monumental temples of the Classical period and the elaborately planned cities and sanctuaries of the Hellenistic period. As in any time or place, the raw materials available and the technologies developed to utilize them largely determined the nature of the architecture. The principal materials of Greek architecture were wood, used for supports and roof beams; unbaked brick, used for walls, especially of private houses; limestone and marble, used for columns, walls, and upper portions of temples and other public buildings; terracotta (baked clay), used for roof tiles and architectural ornaments; and metals, especially bronze, used for some decorative details. Greek architects of the Archaic and Classical periods used these materials to develop a limited range of building types, each of which served a fixed purpose—religious, civic, domestic, funerary, or recreational. The principal forms of religious architecture were open-air altars, temples, and treasuries.