Adam has finally has his father and son moment with one of his children that he is grateful to express himself to his son Cal. By saying he trusts Cal he has gain even more love and forgiveness for not being with his children for many years. Plus, Adam is able to not be like his father but instead be the opposite with just one of his children. Cal – “He though sardonically of telling him about his mother, to see how he would handle I, but he withdrew the though quickly. He didn’t think Aron could handle it at all,” (Steinbeck 586).
Sigmund Freud was the ﬁrst to challenge the view that mental disorders were caused by physical illness and proposed that psychological factors were responsible for the illness. The psychodynamic approach highlights the importance of the unconscious mind and early childhood experiences. Psychodynamic psychologist’s attempt to deal with the mental health issues of their patients by incorporating these ideas and creating therapies using these ideas. The basic concept behind psychoanalysis is that a patient that suffers from mental health problems such as depression can address any regressed feelings thus, the patient gains insight of and can learn to work through their emotional baggage. It is a generalised concept that if the cause of the symptoms were tackled it would only be logical that the symptoms would then cease.
This is the contradicting of Jung. Jung has analysis himself to experience the unconscious through his dreams and fantasia Jung believe that he was strong enough to make dangerous journey and come back to talk about it. His goal was to understand the unconscious from the purpose viewpoint of scientist. Ellis thoughts are that society is more disturbs and it more inclusive and exact “people disturb themselves by thing that have happen to them. And by the view, feelings, and actions” (p16) Horney’s (1950) also Adler writes that our Emotional reactions and lifestyle are associated with our basic beliefs and are therefore cognitively created.
it tries to tackle mustabatory thinking (the thinking that you must be good at everything and like by everyone) by trying to make the patient think more rationally about situations. He came up with the ABCDE model which stands for: A the activating event, B which is the irrational belief e.g. I must be liked, C the unproductive consequence, D which stands for disputing the belief in which there are 3 kinds: logical disputing e.g. does this way of thinking make sense?, empirical disputing e.g. where is proof that this belief is accurate?
Discuss two psychological therapies of depression. (24 Marks) One psychological therapy of depression in Psychodynamic Interpersonal Therapy. This therapy was developed by Hobson, and focuses mainly on the relationship between the therapist and patient. When a comfortable relationship is established, past events that could be the cause of depression are relived and resolved to try and relieve the pressures that they may be putting on the individual. Hobson believes that because problems in our life are usually through interpersonal relationships, we should resolve these problems through a therapeutic relationship.
Abstract An ideal form of the therapeutic process for individual counseling is comprised of techniques and theories taken from the Psychodynamic Approach, Cognitive-Behavioral Approach, Person-Centered Approach and behavior modification techniques that are found in Operant Conditioning. These individual counseling techniques were chosen based on how effective and relevant to the client, they were deemed to be. Techniques taken from the psychodynamic approach is to allow the client to become conscious of all unconscious or subconscious concerns through the use of transference and working alliance. Techniques taken from the cognitive-behavioral approach is to help the client identify any irrational beliefs and thinking that is the cause of the client’s emotional disturbance. In the person centered approach, the therapy focuses on an important human characteristic - the client’s natural ability for growth and development, through the use of self actualization.
These feelings may come from an experience in his or hers childhood, adolescent, or in adulthood. Psychodynamic therapy uses the assumption that everyone has a subconscious, and feelings held in the subconscious are often too painful to face. Humanistic-existential is the approach, which tries to do justice to the whole person including mind, body and spirit; to enable the patient to find constructive ways of coming to terms with every day challenges. Behavior therapy focuses on the present. This type of therapy helps patients overcome phobias and self-destructive behavior.
Skinner. Out of behaviorism, he developed systematic desensitization and aversive conditioning (Answers. n.d.) According to Skinner, systematic desensitization or gradual exposure therapy is either used to overcome phobias and other anxiety disorders. This method is often applied in therapy sessions. Very detailed as the clients walks though different levels of feelings that start at the most intense feeling about a phobia or disorder and once a specific belief is resolved, beleifs are resolved until the phobia or the anxiety disorder is resolved.
CBT is founded on the premise that identifiable errors in information processing and thinking are common amongst depressed people, to the point that they believe these mistaken notions to be a reality. (Barrett, 2010) Hypnosis is an ideal method for eliciting and replacing these notions with healthier, more positive thoughts. While in a trance, clients are more cognitively open to accepting new ways of addressing their depressive patterns. (Dowd, 2012) CBT integrated with hypnosis is commonly referred to as cognitive hypnotherapy. (Alladin,
Nevertheless, Beck’s categorization still provides invaluable cues to cognitive therapist in identifying cognitive errors. Once distortion thoughts have been identified, therapist can form a goal-orientated treatment by encouraging his/her patient to gather evidence that against these thoughts, and thus eliminating cognitive errors. Application of Cognitive Therapy in PTSD Cognitive therapy is one of the techniques that aim to reduce PTSD symptoms. By altering one’s cognitive error, PTSD patients can assign new meaning to traumatic event and also learn to manage re-experiencing symptoms, thus enhancing one’s social and occupational functioning level. In order to achieve these therapeutic goals, Clark and Ehlers (2004) proposed that a specialized cognitive therapy for PTSD should contain two progressive phrases, which namely Trauma and Disorder Focused.