Gm Tree Essay

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2.i. Intent This paper will address the question of whether there will ever be the certification of forests that contain genetically modified (GM) trees. This chapter, chapter two, reviews the origin and range of both certification systems and genetic modification (GM) applications, and defines a genetically modified organism (GMO). The third chapter will focuses on the aspects of GM that certification schemes, and the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) in particular, find problematical. It doing so it will consider how the different certification schemes have addressed comparable issues to those raised surrounding GM trees. This includes the conservation of genetic resources, use of exotic species and application of chemicals. Chapter four briefly reviews the inherently different perceptions of GM by the various stakeholders, and the role this plays in risk evaluation. Lastly, chapter five concludes with consideration of the politics and business surrounding GM and certification, and reflects upon their greater role in determining whether forest certification and genetically engineered trees will ever be compatible. 2.ii. The rise of certification International responses to deforestation have been vociferously criticised by many NGOs . These reproaches centre on the perception that there has been a slow implementation of inadequate forest conservation agreements. Furthermore, these agreements themselves do not commit participants to agreement implementation. These deficiencies have been recognised for some time; an FAO report on TFAP noted an “inadequate regard for local peoples, ecological matters and the underlying causes of deforestation” and recommended “avoid bureaucratic suffocation and encourage effective leadership” (Ullsten et al. 1990). The ITTO has been consistently criticised as unrepresentative with ineffective environmental concern and poor

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