many hunters and gatherers lived along the coastal plains of modern Syria and Israel and in the valleys and hills near the Zagros Mountains (Kreis 2013). Instead of constantly having to travel for food, they would find themselves staying in one region and start using what was around them. This was the beginning of civilization as we know it. Sumerian civilization was not just a civilization, but also a foundation for many civilizations that followed which adopted and implemented many of its developments and inventions (Kreis 2013). One of the biggest contributions to civilization by the Sumerians, Egyptians, and Hebrews was the invention of agriculture.
The Sumerians who were the first people who built the earliest civilization of Mesopotamia, the language was the first human tongue to have been expressed into writing. The Sumerian writing where created to record economic resources account of a temple as a temple scribe. The writing was holly and difficult, that only certain chosen people can learn cuneiform and help temple to record. Cuneiform came from the Latin word cuneus, wedge. During the Mesopotamia period, people learnt to record events and important message on solid objects such as walls, clay tablets, and etc.
The Sumerians were the dominant people of Mesopotamia who built the world’s first cities and helped shape Mesopotamian history as we know it. They built temples and palaces to worship their gods, constructed irrigation systems to distribute water, and maintained order by dividing into city-states. When looking at the cultural and political developments of classical India and Sumer, it is apparent that both had polytheistic religions and decentralized rule, however, they were different in their literature. One similarity as mentioned previously is decentralization in India and Sumer. In both societies, local governments were practiced rather than a unified, whole state.
Era 1: Technological & Environmental Transformations, to c. 600 B.C.E. Key Concept 1.1: Big Geography and the Peopling of the Earth The term Big Geography draws attention to the global nature of world history. Throughout the Paleolithic period, humans migrated from Africa to Eurasia, Australia, and the Americas. Early humans were mobile and creative in adapting to different geographical settings from savanna to desert to Ice Age tundra. By making an analogy with modern hunter-forager societies, anthropologists infer that these bands were relatively egalitarian.
Mesopotamia Mesopotamia is located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in the Fertile Crescent. Mesopotamia is often known as the “cradle of life” because it is where the first foundations of ancient city states were laid. Its location played a large role in its flourishing civilizations. The soil in this area was incredibly fertile, allowing for agricultural technology to thrive and support the growing population. The Sumerians were the first great civilization to utilize the over abundance of resources that Mesopotamia had to offer.
(Experience ancient) While Ancient Egypt started to develop Mesopotamia already made big progress in forms of Farming, building the first settlements and later cities across Mesopotamia, starting cultures, different civilizations such as the Sumerian civilization, empires, and even inventing the first known Human writing system. Mesopotamia is considered to be the start of all civilization, (Worldology) and once we consider all the developments and inventions which happened during the timeline of Ancient Mesopotamia it is very easy to
Mesopotamia was an ancient region in the eastern Mediterranean between the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers; bordered by the Zagros Mountains in the north and the Arabian Plateau in the south, where modern day Iraq is today. Civilization emerged from this region approximately 6000 year ago with the creation of centralized cities and the first written word, known as cuneiform. The creation of a written word increased communications among groups of people and lead to expanded trade and commerce. With expanded commerce and the growth of cities came the need to regulate interactions among people with a set of standard laws. One of the first known attempts to establish written rules, and the best preserved Mesopotamian collection of laws, is the Code of Hammurabi.
Around 3000 B.C.E (6000 Years ago), existed four ancient civilizations, two of which are classified as Mesopotamia and Egypt. Mesopotamia’s location was along the Tigris and Euphrates River, while Egypt’s establishment was adjacent to the Nile River. Mesopotamia’s lifestyle was comparable to Egypt’s in various ways. Both Mesopotamia and Egypt created a centralized government and complex social hierarchy due to advancements in agriculture, however in Egypt women experienced greater liberties then their counterparts in Mesopotamia. Both Mesopotamia and Egypt developed along parallel lines.
Mesopotamia was established in an area known as the Fertile Crescent. At this point in history, people settled wherever there was an exceeding amount of natural resources. The crescent was an ideal area. Mesopotamia was the name given to the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Mesopotamia means ‘between the rivers’ (Dowling).
Seasonal flooding fertilized the land for the next year's crops and Agriculture was essential for survival, growth, and economic success. The Mesopotamians Sumerian city-states was based on farming and trade.The people of Mesopotamia were known for their metalwork, woolen textiles, and pottery. Copper, tin, and timber were imported goods exchanged for dried fish, wool, wheat, and metal goods. The second difference is the social structure. In mesopotamia There were three major social groups in the Sumerian city-states, the nobles, commoners, and the slaves.