Agriculture in Russia was far behind other great powers and peasants were suffering greatly through the repeated famines in 1902 and 1905. Sergei Witte had done nothing to improve agriculture only focusing on the economy of Russia. This led to subsistence agriculture. Grain was being exported and there wasn’t enough for the peasants. This also meant that the land was not used to it full potential, all these factors lead to the famines and causing peasants to up rise using violence against government officials.
Many polish immigrants, emigrated from Poland to America during the late 19th century around 1885. They left in search of a new life, thinking that America was a mythical paradise, a land of opportunity, equality, and wealth. During the 19th century, Poland’s economic and social systems changed; the once rural, agricultural society changed to an extremely large increase in population, expansion of commercial agriculture, and the growth of transportation, and industry in the cities. To get to America, “Poles” as they were called, had to sell off their homes, livestock and personal items for money. Anything that was not sold was usually left behind in Poland.
To what extent did the policies of Sergei Witte address the problems facing Russia at the end of the nineteenth century? Russia faced many problems at the end of the nineteenth century. Under Minister of Finance Ivan Vyshnegradskii there had been famine because of high taxes on consumer goods which had forced peasants to sell more and more grain. The government were slow to act and, although they eventually enforced a ban on grain exports, 350,000 died of starvation or disease. Economically and industrially Russia was also falling far behind many other Western countries at the time, like Britain and Germany.
His motivation and drive to want to push the movement forward, as well as publishing the German Mass in 1526, and the small catechisms (which outlined his beliefs), were important to the spread of Lutheranism in the years 1521 to 1531. However there are also other factors that contributed to the spread of Lutheranism in the years 1521 to 1531. The role of the big cities at the time such as Augsburg, were arguably more fundamental to the spread of Lutheranism, that martin Luther. These big cities had populations of around 100,000 people. In Big cities this would also usually mean it would be home to the ‘printing press’.
No single reason explains this vast westward movement; a variety of motives contributed to it. The biggest push factor for the migrants was living space. In the mid-nineteenth century, the states of Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, Kentucky, and Tennessee had experiences two- and threefold population increases. Many of the people living in these areas began to feel hemmed in by neighbors living a mile or two away. Some believed that Oregon would offer them a better life, a place where they could make their fortune.
Britain's population was growing throughout the 19th century. Mainly people were leaving rural areas and moving into towns. Soon enough the town population in England was the same as that of the countryside. Landowners had political power in Britain for many years. However, due to the industrial revolution, factory owners and those involved with business had the new wealth of Britain.
Introduction Deutschland, or Germany, has an ever changing cultural landscape. Old names of territories such as Bavaria, Brandenburg, and Saxony still carry pride and prestige among Germans while also being used for political and commercial gains (Every culture). Though some parts of German culture remain strong, many parts have been re-evaluated. Germans have had to Vergangenheitsbewältigung, come to terms, with many parts of their cultural past like the Third Reich which had been a large part of national identity and pride (Every Culture). Germany has a very young and developing culture due to recent events.
I will explore these causes in this essay. The age of revolutions had left a changed landscape in Europe and many countries had a new found sense of national pride. After the congress of Vienna delegates from Britain, Austria, Russia and Prussia decided upon the new Europe. They left Germany and Italy as divided states. Strong nationalist feeling in these countries led to their unification in 1861 and 1871 respectively.
Ever since 1879, Germany had upheld a policy of protection for both agriculture and industry. Caprivi reformed the tariff act of 1879. The bread tax was causing widespread discontent. Bad harvests as well as a shortage of wheat sent prices very high. Caprivi decided Germany must export.
Much of this investment came from already industrialized countries like Germany, Great Britain, and France whose business owners looked for new investment opportunities in the United States. These investors put money into the work of mechanics and engineers with the expertise to develop new, more efficient ways of mass-producing goods. Machines benefited the United States by allowing business owners to specialize in the production of goods and manufacture them in large quantities to distribute throughout the nation or export. As a result, the cost of mass-produced goods went down as their quantity went up causing industrial profits to rise. With the creation of transcontinental railroads and telephones, marketing nationally was available to distribute these goods.