Fischer, the provoker of this controversy, expresses this concept of German aggression by stating that since c.1900 Germany planned, and then was able to execute a war, due to their aggressive weltpolitik; based purely on expansionism. However, although many historians have agreed with, or adapted this argument, such as the view it was a ‘calculated risk’, or an ‘escape forward’ in order to relieve Germany from their domestic pressures, many have also criticised the approach. For instance, it is interpreted by some that Germany stumbled into a defensive war in order to protect themselves, and their ally; Austria-Hungary. However, considering these aspects, it could be argued that it is most conceivable that that Germany had planned the war and their aggressive foreign policy aimed to provoke a war in order to help their plans of annexation. Fischer’s argument that the outbreak of the First World War was due to Germany’s aggressive foreign policy, with a harsh focus on annexation, can be regarded as one of much significance.
On the one hand, German aggression held the greatest responsibility for the outbreak of a general European war in august 1914. This aggression falls primarily under foreign policy. In the late 1900’s the policy of ‘weltpolitik ‘was introduced in order to secure colonial territories abroad and contend with the European powers such as Britain and France. Corrigan supports this by saying ‘Germanys foreign policy aims were focussed on annexation’. There are many events which highlight the importance of this policy no more so than the first and second Moroccan crisis.
Why did Germany go to war in 1914? There are many reasons as to why Germany went to war in 1914 such as fear of encirclement, various alliances formed, internal policies and domestic and military factors. I personally think the most important reason was due to their internal politics. Germany was formed as a country in 1871 and so felt like they had to prove themselves as a nation to the rest of Europe. They did this through aggressive policies, which they hoped would achieve their aim and build up their empire.
To what extent was the nature of the Schlieffen Plan responsible for the outbreak of a general European war in August 1914? The Schlieffen plan, completed in 1905 was a vital piece of evidence that helps to explain the true cause of the First World War. However it can become unclear how it affected the European powers involved in the conflict when the nature of the plan is considered. There are arguments both for the plan being utilised, as an offensive manoeuvre, suggested by events such as the intention to invade both Belgium and France. There are also arguments for the plan as a means of defence, suggested by Russian mobilisation and fear of encirclement.
Whilst the aims of Germany’s foreign policy had changed dramatically from under Bismarck’s rule, it could be argued that it began to lean towards more aggressive policies including Weltpolitik, which has given reason for some historians to lay the blame of the outbreak of war in Europe solely on Germany. Source X by John Moses agrees with this viewpoint, viewing Germany to have been planning to “unleash a continental war” for a extensive period of time, whilst source W by David Blackbourn still agrees that Germany was to blame, it however recognises the possibility that Germany had to act within their best interests and attempt to make the most of a bad situation. However opposed to this opinion Source V by Volker Berghahn disagrees with any opinion that Germany bared responsibility through their foreign policy, but through this belief that Germany believed others “wanted to destroy them” and combined with the “diplomatic isolation” that arose it was viewed that Germany’s foreign policy was once of defensive purposes, rather than being aggressive, which is the forms the main argument within historians as to what formed the true nature behind the actions of German foreign policy. Sources W and X both agree to different extents with the argument that aggressive German foreign policy was to blame for the outbreak of war in Europe in 1914. Both sources agree that following the Sarajevo murder that Germany actively pursued a course which would lead to continental war within Europe.
Overall, Source W challenges source V, as it indicates that Germany’s aggressive actions since the turn of the century resulted in war. Source X implies how it is a matter of great controversy however leads more towards the fact that Germany had always wanted colonial expansion. Although it could be argued otherwise, it is evident that outbreak of war in Europe was due to an aggressive foreign policy which had been waged c.1900. Source V states that Germany, ‘felt encircled not only by the triple entente but also by the forces of change’. Although it is true that Germany was surrounded by an alliance system, indeed an extensive alliance system did surround Germany, whether they posed a threat or not is questionable.
‘The outbreak of War in 1914 was due to an aggressive German foreign policy which had been waged since 1900’ Use source on page 46. The notion that Germany played a pivotal part in the outbreak of war in Europe in 1914 is expressed by all three sources, although the belief that it was their aggressive foreign policy which carried the greatest responsibility is voiced especially in Source W. Here David Blackbourn argues that Germany’s naval expansion was highly responsible for increasing international tension. Source V also states that Germany’s foreign policy was to blame for the outbreak of war, focusing on the army’s responsibility. However whilst Source X does suggest foreign policy was involved in the creation of WW1, it challenges the argument to the greatest extent, instead arguing that the Balkans played a crucial part in emergence of war. It can be argued that whilst German foreign policy was a highly significant factor in the outbreak of war, it is important to remember there were many other vital factors, especially the roles of other nations which played a more important role in the outbreak of war.
To what extent was the Alliance System of European Countries responsible for causing World War 1? Subject: History (SL) Word Count: 1963 (Excluding Sub-headings) Contents Section A: Plan of the Investigation P.3 Section B: Summary of Evidence P.4-5 Section C: Evaluation of Sources P.6 Section D: Analysis P.7-8 Section E: Conclusion P.9 Section F: Works Cited P.10 Section A: Plan of Investigation In this investigation I will investigate the importance of Alliances in Europe towards causing World War I with the role played by militarism, the belief that a country should maintain strong military capabilities. This investigation focuses on the rivalry between Germany and Great Britain, Russia, and France, also the outcome of Balkan Wars, and the importance of Archduke Franz Ferdinand’s assassination, as the event triggered the Alliance Systems. The investigation will rely on Secondary sources that contain analysis of factors that caused World War I, records of world war related historical events, and statistical records of the military and industrial aspect of involved countries, as well as the alliance treaties among participants of World War I. Providing a broader scope on the Alliances’ effects to the cause of war.
In this essay I will be arguing how far I agree with the opinion ‘the outbreak of war in Europe in 1914 was due to an aggressive German policy which had been waged since 1900?’ The outbreak of war I Believe to a large extent The outbreak of war in Europe in 1914 was due to an aggressive German policy which had been waged since 1900.This is shown in The Second Moroccan Crisis (1911) when in April there were disturbances in Fez which led to French military intervention and also Germany’s intervention. Germany sent a gunboat, attempting to bully France into Giving Germany the French Congo in return for Germany giving up all interests in Morocco. This shows how to a large extent the outbreak of war was due to German aggressive policy as they had aggressive intent using the gun boat and attempting to bully France. This statement The outbreak of war in Europe in 1914 was due to an aggressive German policy which had been waged since 1900 is supported by Fischer who says ‘war in 19154 was a bold leap forward to establish German dominance’. This is true as Germany tried to establish German dominance in Fez using aggressive policy to govern France.
archduke franz Ferdinand The Most Important Cause of WWI was the Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Do you Agree? World war 1 was a controversial war, which was also said to be the war to stop all wars. Germany, a powerful empire in the early years of the twentieth century, fought the First World War (1914-1918) alongside the Austrian empire and against the Allies (England, France and Russia.). The murder of Archduke Franz Ferdinand was just a prominent cause for the outbreak of the war; yet, there were other causes as well.