He believed that all of the continents were once joined together, forming a super-continent called Pangaea. These plates are thought to float on the underlying semi-molten asthenosphere and are moved by convection currents that derive their heat from the earth's crust. It states that this process isi continous and forms new land along the boundaries where the plates move apart - known as constructive margins - and destroys older crust where the plates are moving together - destructive margins. Later evidence also supported this theory - fossilised remains of a dinosaur, the mesosaurus, were discovered on the coasts of Brazil and Gabon. Wegeners ideas were proved even further, increasing our knowledge of tectonic events.
These are important to prove evolution. Convergent evolution includes three very important parts: (a) common ancestry, (b) speciation, and (c) natural selection. Evidence of a continental drift involvesis marsupials spreading across oceans that did not yet exist, making their travel across vast bodies of land possible. A key examplenother supporter of the a species that experienced continental drift is the Glossopteris. This tree was only able to grow in warm climates and had a seed that could not float, yet fossils of this tree are found in different hemispheres of the world today.
He claimed that each of the present continents was once joined together as part of a super continent called Pangea. He believed this because he saw that in certain areas continents would fit together for example the west coast of Africa fits together with the east coast of South America, therefore they must have moved apart from one central mass. Other evidence was shown to back up this theory such as the fact that glacier derived clays are found in all of the continents in Gondwana forming one half of Pangea, as one striations in rocks of Carboniferous age. Presently they cover half the globe but would form a reasonably sized polar ice cap if Wegener’s theory was true and the globe was reconstructed in his image of how it used to be. Despite Wegener having no concrete proof as to why this was the case his theory was proved to be accurate, physicists had believed that the earths crust was far from strong enough to be able to force itself apart.
Evaluate how plate tectonics theory helps our understanding of the distribution of seismic and volcanic events The theory of plate tectonics is actually a relatively new idea. It was only developed in the last 100 years and has now been widely accepted as the explanation for the cause of earthquakes and volcanoes and where on the Earth they occur. This has now replaced the original theory that tectonic events such as earthquakes and volcanoes were caused by God and his will. This was the theory in most western countries before plate tectonics theory. The main theory of plate tectonics was first developed by a German called Alfred Wegener in 1912.
Describe sea floor spreading and explain why it is an important piece of evidence for advancing plate tectonics. -It is a theory where land is created at the ridges and is then split apart. 7. Describe the general relationships that exist among the following: distance from spreading centers, heat flow, age of ocean crustal rock, and ocean depth. The farther away the older, the closer to the spreading center the warmer and more active.
The evidence of sea floor spreading was further supported by Vine and Drummond, who studied the magnetic pattern of the sea floor. They found that the Earth’s magnetic field changes over time, because as magma from the mantle rises to the crust it cools but the basalt will align to the field it cools to. It is also found that on either side of mid oceanic ridges there were symmetrical magnetic patterns, so suggesting that the ocean was created at the mid oceanic ridges and as new ocean floor cooled, it pushed the crust away. Both Hess and Vine and Drummond found evidence that is crucial to the explanation of how continental drift happened, and it is very important in the development of geologists understanding, however other people found evidence to support continental drift also. Dan McKenzie went on to further explain sea floor spreading, being able to explain why new crust was made at mid oceanic ridges.
As well as landforms caused by river processes, such as the Bangladesh Delta – which can be seen via satellite - therefore a major landform. One major piece of evidence in support of a strong relationship between tectonic processes and major landforms on the Earth’s surface is the Mid Atlantic Ridge. The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is an underwater mountain range caused by a diverging tectonic plate along a constructive plate boundary located along the floor of the Atlantic Ocean. The MAR is the longest mountain range in the world, therefore is definitely one of the Earth’s major landforms, and is caused by tectonic activity therefore the relationship between tectonic activity and major landforms reinforced by this evidence. In the North Atlantic, the MAR separates the Eurasian and North American Plates, whereas in the South Atlantic it separates the African and South American Plates, this evidence emphasises the size of the MAR and backs up
4. Why would Diamond choose to start here? Chapter One: Up to the Starting Line Diamond says: “An observer transported back in time to 11,000 B.C. could not have predicted on which continent human societies would develop most quickly, but could have made a strong case for any of the continents.” Why does Diamond begins his story at this point in human history; why not sooner or later? o Because this date corresponds approximately to the beginnings of village life in a few parts of the world, the first undisputed peopling of the Americas, the end of the Pleistocene Era and last Ice Age, and the start of what geologists term the Recent Era.
Where is all this melting ice going? “Sea level rise is caused by two factors related to global warming: the added water coming from the melting of land ice and the expansion of sea water as it warms up” (Global Climate Change: Key Indicators, 2014). All these indicators data need to be studied as
Journal Article Review PHSC 210 – Section A14 ELEMENTS OF EARTH SCIENCE Professor Thomas Breuner Linda Williams Liberty University February 17, 2013 Introduction “The Origin of Old Earth Geology and its Ramifications for Life in the 21st Century”, article by Dr. Terry Mortenson, AiG-U.S., features the perspective of several clergymen and geologist views regarding the origin of the earth and the creation of humankind. The old earth creationist believe that the earth was created millions of years ago, unlike the young earth creationists who believe in the biblical creation as taught in Genesis of the Old Testament. Brief Overview and Main Points Since late in the 19th century and even through today, there