Geography Essay

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Atmosphere- gas surrounding earth, Hydrosphere- anywhere were water is, Lithosphere- outer layer of earth, Ecosphere- may not contain life but its contents have an influence on life, Biosphere- where life exists^^Morphoogical system- deals with stucture/appearance, Cascading system- the movement or flow of energy (energy form sun, hydrological cycle), Ecosystem- systme where plant and animal life responfd to their the pyhsical world, Altered system- how other systems have been changed by humans.^^^^Law of uniformitarianism- process’ that influence or planet work in the same ways they did in the past. Gaia Hypothesis- emphasizes interconnectedness between the physical and biological worlds^^^^Crust- hydrosphere, lithosphere, cont plates, ocean plates... Mantle- asthenosphere (plasticy), mesosphere (mostly solid but somtimes flows)... Core- outer core (molten liquid iron magnetic field), inner core (solid iron extrm pressure)^^^^Igneous rock- rock formed molten material or magma (extrusive cools on surface- obsidian, intrusive cools on inside-granite), Sedimentary rock- formed by chemical precipitation, lithification, formed in layers (clastic means rock is sediment, non clastic minerals/remains are), Metamorphic rock- changed by heat and pressure- marble, Magma-under earths surface, Lava- on the surface.^^^^Composite volcano- violent, subduction zone, Shield- hot spot, honey like lava, Cinder Cone- smaller than comp, violent, built up of ash and volcanic rock, Caldera- formed when a large volcanoe collapses, Dike- vertical intrusion down, Sill- opposite of dike, Laccolith- mushroom shaped intrusion off the batholith, Batholith- main intrusion.^^^^Earthquakes, Focus- underground, Epicenter- on surface, Surface waves- siesmic waves that travel along the surface, Body Waves- Siesmic waves that travel through the earth, Anticline fold is at the top, Syncline is at the

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