Genetics Essay

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Genetics 1. Gametes have half the numbers of ___________ that body cells have. (chromosomes) 2. What are the 2 cell divisions that meiosis, diploid cells undergo? (meiosis I and II) 3. Who led the groundwork for genetics? (Mendel) 4. Is all of an organism’s genetic material? (genome) 5. What do Punnett squares illustrate? (genetic crosses) 6. Is the exchange of chromosome segments between homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis I (crossing over) 7. How many copies of each autosomal gene affect phenotype? (2) 8. What are traits produced by 2 or more genes called? (polygenic traits) 9. These where maps of the relative locations, or loci, of genes on a chromosome. (linkage maps) 10. A chart used to help trace the phenotypes and genotypes in a family to determine whether people carry recessive alleles. (pedigree) 11. What 2 people confirmed that DNA is a genetic material? (Hershey and Chase) 12. DNA is composed of 4 types of _____________. (nucleotides) 13. What is the process in which DNA is copied during the cell cycle called? (replication) 14. What are the three types of RNA that transcriptions make? (messenger, ribosomal, transfer) 15. Amino acids are linked to become what? (proteins) 16. Is a DNA segment that allows a gene to be transcribed? (promoter) 17. What are mutagens? (agents in the environment that can change DNA) 18. What does biotechnology rely on? (cutting DNA at a specific places) 19. What rapidly copies segments of DNA? (polymerase chain) 20. What is DNA finger painting used for? (identification) 21. Is a genetically identical copy of a gene or of an organism? (clone) 22. What is the study of genes, gene functions, and entire genomes called? (genomics) 23. These are tools that allow scientist to study many genes, and their expression, at once? (DNA

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