By using the genes from two bacteria producing organisms such as Alcaligenes Eutrophus, they could insert them into cress plants with the aim of these plants producing the PHB. This process worked and the plants and some of their offspring produced around 14% of the dry weight as PHB. Although this is not as high yielding as when it is produced in the petri dishes, it is a much more economically viable method of production and hence would give a much more substantial impact to society. Chemically PHB is from a group of biopolymers known as the polyhyroxyalkanoates. Figure 1 below shows other examples of biopolymers in
Compare the benefits of growing GM seeds for crops with the potential negative consequences of using them? The benefits of growing GM seeds for crops is that the seeds are more resistant to stress and the crops can overcome pest outbreaks and reduce the danger or crop failures. The crops can endure severe weather such as frost, extreme heat or drought. Now the negative side effects of the GM products is for example the wind blowing to different fields were other farmers may prefer not to use enhanced seeds. They are modified with herbicides and pesticides so the uncertainty of health consequences of humans consuming the food grown by these seeds exists.
The sexually transmissible disease gonorrhea has become increasingly resistant to treatment with antibiotics. What is the most likely scientific explanation? a) The gonorrhea bacteria learned to avoid antibiotics b) The gonorrhea bacteria changed their genes when they sensed antibiotics c) Antibiotic-sensitive gonorrhea bacteria died out, but antibiotic-resistant gonorrhea bacteria have flourished and persisted d) The antibiotic increased the mutation rate in the gonorrhea bacteria e) Both b and d 26. Which statement best describes the relationship between plants and animals on earth? a) Plants produce O2 and sugars from CO2 b) Animals produce CO2 and H2O from sugars and O2 c) Plants produce O2 and sugars and animals produce CO2 and H2O d) Animals produce O2 and sugars and plants produce CO2 and H2 27.
What is the benefit of the modification? Because the GM tomatoes can remain fresh longer they have time to ripen in the sun before picking, resulting in a better tasting tomato! 4. Three advantages of genetically modified foods Longer lasting foods can be more easily transported, Having extra vitamins in food help poor people from becoming malnourished or going blind, and the insecticides inside some genetically modified plants keep farmers from having to spray the whole place down with toxic wastes, and they also 5. A counter argument to one of the disadvantages of genetically modified food Some antibiotics can be transferred to humans and make it harder for us to fight infections, genetically modifying foods could potentially put farmers out of work, and some important insects could be at risk because of the insecticides in foods.
Agriculturally, plants can be genetically transformed to be resistant to pesticides, spoilage, and frost. In bioremediation bacteria can be transformed to be able to digest oil from oil spills. For medicinal purposes, gene therapy is being used to help people with diseases caused by defective genes. The GFP protein is a green fluorescent protein that is the source for bioluminescent jellyfish. This protein causes the jellyfish to glow in the dark.
Plants and animals naturally go through a process of selection for survival. Features that make the plant or animal more likely to live are passed along, and features that are not advantageous are weeded out. These genetic mutations occur over generations, though, making improvement a slow moving process. Scientists discovered that they could improve specific characteristics quickly by introducing foreign genes into an organism, such as those from plants, animals, and even viruses. For example, exposing a plant to a certain virus can make it more resistant to disease.
58 Generally, dietary supplements are ingested orally and lack abuse potential. 59 Despite the reduced level of regulatory scrutiny and quality assurance, public interest in botanically derived treatments continues to rise. Acknowledging such interest, and the fact that technology has improved significantly in recent decades, the FDA issued a 2004 guidance document that sets forth the principles to which pharmaceutical manufacturers must adhere when developing prescription medications derived from complex botanical material. 60 The Guidance permits some leniency in the biochemical characterization of a prospective botanical agent the early stages of research; however, at
Though, Butterbur is a perennial shrub that grows in Europe, Asia and North America. The active constituents are petasin and isopetasin, which are believed to reduce smooth muscle spasm and have an anti-inflammatory effect. Researchers at the University of Dundee, Scotland, evaluated the effects of butterbur in people with allergic asthma who were also using inhalers. They found that butterbur added to the anti-inflammatory effect of the
Generally they are used to make the foods crops more resistant to pests or having more flavour or appearance. Traditionally, modifications were done through breeding, but recently scientists are using genetic engineering to create exact specifications of what they want. For example, geneticists of plants often isolate a gene responsible aimed at drought tolerance and add that gene into another plant. The genes used are not only from plants, but also from other sources also. Bacillus thuringiensis, a natural bacterium, produces crystal proteins lethal to insect larvae.
Since it is a plant it will help reduce the “green house” gases and pollution in the air, not to mention making a cleaner burning fuel source to replace gasoline and reduce the amount of pollution even more. The plant also does not take much soil space and can be grown in between other crops such as corn. Hemp as long roots so that it improves soil structure and replenishes soil with nutrients and nitrogen and helps control erosion of topsoil. Also, once harvested, any residue can act as eco-friendly manure. It is also a weed suppresser to prevent other weeds from growing because it grows so fast and densely, it blocks out sunlight to other weeds that are trying to grow.