Genetic Vocabulary Essay

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GENETICS VOCABULARY 1. Allele — Alternative forms of a gene for each variation of a trait of an organism. (All allelic forms of gene are found at corresponding positions on genetically similar, homologous, chromosomes). 2. Asexual reproduction - Reproduction without the need for fertilization. These organisms produce genetically identical copies of themselves through the process of mitosis. 3. Autosome –All chromosomes exclusive of the sex chromosomes. 4. Backcross – The F1 progeny are mated back to one of their parents. 5. Carrier – An heterozygous individual that has the recessive allele for a trait but does not have the trait itself. 6. Chromosome - An organized structure of DNA and protein that is found in cell’s nucleus. It is a single piece of coiled DNA containing many genes, regulatory elements and other nucleotide sequences. 7. Codominant Alleles – When phenotypic effect of each allele is observable in the heterozygous condition. Ex: A blood (IA) + B blood (IB) = IAIB AB blood offspring. 8. Bivalent - A pair of associated homologous chromosomes formed after replication. Each replicated chromosome comprises of two chromatids. 9. Chromatin - The combination of DNA and proteins that makes up chromosomes. 10. Crossing over — Exchange of genetic material between non-sister chromatids from homologous chromosome during prophase I of meiosis; results in new allele combinations. 11. Differentiation - Humans have around 200 different cell types, all of which are derived from a single fertilised egg cell. New cells produced by mitosis differentiate and become specialised. 12. Specialization - Each cell type has specific genes "switched on" or "switched off" so that it can carry out its particular function. 13. Diploid — Cell with two of each kind of chromosome; is said to contain a diploid, or doubled number of

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