1-2-09 Glowing Bacteria Genes are pieces of DNA which hold the instructions for making proteins. The protein will then give an organism a particular trait. Genetic transformation means changes caused by genes, and requires the insertion of a gene into an organism, in order to change the trait. this technique is used by in many areas of biotechnology. Agriculturally, plants can be genetically transformed to be resistant to pesticides, spoilage, and frost.
I. Title: pGLO Transformation Lab II. Purpose; We want to be able to observe, comprehend and analyze genetic transformation as we genetically alter organisms. III. Hypothesis: If bacteria with + pGLO plasmids that are resistant to the antibiotic ampicillin and have the gene for GFP, colonies with survive and grow on the transformation plates that have LB/ amp.
Cocci bacteria exchange the genetic material to the DNA of the host cells therefore causing ailments (Heritage, 2006). In this case, the pathogen first attaches itself through infection to the host living thing, then penetrates to the cells and again attaches to the host cells. Some species of the cocci bacteria have the capability to generate very resistive structure called endospores (Heritage, 2006). This resistive
Transduction involves transfer of DNA from one bacterium into another via bacteriophages. Conjugation involves transfer of DNA via sexual pilus and requires cell –to-cell contact. DNA fragments that contain resistance genes from resistant donors can then make previously susceptible bacteria express resistance as coded by these newly acquired resistance genes. 7. A plasmid is an independent, circular, self-replicating DNA molecule that carries only a few genes.
Unknown Final report 1. Introduction: The purpose of this lab was to identify two unknown bacteria cultures using various differential tests. The identification of these unknown cultures was accomplished by separating and differentiating possible bacteria based on specific biochemical characteristics. Whether the tests performed identified specific enzymatic reactions or metabolic pathways, each was used in a way to help recognize those specifics and identify the unknown cultures. The differential tests used to identify the unknown cultures were oxidase, catalase, lactose and sucrose fermentation, nitrate reduction, gelatin hydrolysis, starch hydrolysis, manitol salt, MR-VP, citrate, indole, urease, DNase, and coagulase.
What kinds of clinical specimens may yield a mixed flora in bacterial cultures? Oral, Skin, or GI specimens 5. When more than one colony type appears in pure culture, what are the most likely sources of extraneous contamination? Individual colonies can be picked up on the inoculating loop, or straight wire and inoculated in to the fresh agar or brother media References Cowan, M. K. (2012). MICROBIOLOGY: A SYSTEMS APPROACH, THIRD EDITION.
The agent which the new genetic material is incorporated into is the bacterial plasmid. A plasmid is a circular deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule that replicates independently of the bacterial chromosome and often is the avenue for which a bacteria gains resistance to an antibiotic. Recombinant plasmids are those which have DNA from two or more sources incorporated into a single plasmid. To make recombinant plasmids, two different plasmids are cut with the same restriction enzyme: this restriction enzyme only cuts at particular restriction sites, so the type of cut it makes in one plasmid will be the same type of cut in another plasmid. The cut must produce “sticky ends” so that the plasmid DNA can bind to any
pBlu Bacterial Transformation Purpose: To change the DNA structure of bacteria to make it turn blue. Hypothesis: If we add pBlu to E. coli bacteria, then it will turn blue because the pBlu will code for the color gene. Materials: 4 pipets, 7 yellow loops, 1 marker, bleach, ice, tape, hot water, 2 LB Petri Plates, 2 LB/amp/xgal plates, micropipettes and tips, and test tubes with holder. Safety: Be sure to wear goggles and wash hands and lab station thoroughly. Variables: Experimental Control: LB plate.
Inside a bacterium, the restriction enzymes selectively cut up foreign DNA in a process called restriction; while host DNA is protected by a modification enzyme. In this lab, we used a procedure known as get electrophoresis to compare how restriction enzymes cut. Purpose The purpose of this lab was to compare how different restriction enzymes cut DNA. In this lab gel electrophoresis was used. The goal of this procedure was to separate the bands by sizes.
It is also essential to understand how to separate and identify different bacterium among a sample in order to treat each bacterium separately. Introduction For this project the researchers were provided with a mixed sample of a gram-positive and gram-negative bacterium and given the task to separate and identify them. Gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria differ in the environments and nutrients that are needed to grow and those that will impede growth. To differentiate between the two types of bacterium a gram stain was performed, then selective media were used to separate and identify both bacterium. Selective media contain specific nutrients or ingredients that allow for the growth of a specific organism or a particular type of