Deviance is a social issue that has plagued all societies from the beginning of time and the sociologists’ attempts to comprehend why individuals take part in deviant behavior is still undergo. However, one theory’s explanation of deviant behavior can put things in perspective: Differential Association Theory. Through this theory is becomes obvious that the phrase “people, places, and things” has relevance. Disregarding any possible biological or personality influences Differential Association Theory explains that we learn from our encounters with others. Also, the mass media plays a significant role in shaping our opinions and what we accept as normal or deviant behavior.
It is generally accepted that the mass media have become some of the most powerful institutional forces in society. Although everyone uses the media in different ways, the media are responsible for directing attention and shaping cultural attitudes and values. (Media Awareness Network) The media is influential, using stereotypes in many areas, such as the entertainment and news industries, to get audiences to quickly understand information. Stereotypes act like codes that give audiences a quick, common understanding of a person or group of people, usually relating to their class, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, social role or occupation. (Media Awareness Network) Stereotypes can be problematic, reducing a wide range of differences in people to simplistic categorizations.
In her publication titled “Gender Trouble”, Judith Butler presents her view that gender is a performative role in society, meaning that in order for gender identity to be genuinely expressed and understood, it must be conveyed openly in social spaces. Throughout her book she provides numerous examples of these “social spaces” that would be a necessary ground for women in order to better establish an identity in society. These include political representation, cultural movements, and the economic climate. These social spaces are presented in great depth and explain how they limit a person by identifying with a specific gender. In this paper, I will argue for Butler’s view on how certain gender performance is restricted in these numerous fields, and how Ms. Butler would object to these various situations.
A stereotype is a popular belief about specific social groups or types of individuals. Stereotypes are standardized and simplified conceptions of groups based on some prior assumptions (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stereotype). While all stereotypes are generalizations, not all generalizations are stereotypes. Stereotypes are oversimplifications of people groups widely circulated in certain societies (http://racerelations.about.com/od/understandingrac1/a/WhatIsaStereotype.htm). A society or a human society is a group of people related to each other through persistent relations such as social status, roles and social networks.
All of them look on a society on a macro scale, generalising their ideas about males and females relations with relation the entire society. However all of above approaches agree upon the patriarchal construction of society, they vary with its reasons and come out with different solutions. It is commonly assumed that among three main feminist theories are liberal feminism, Marxist feminism and radical
Social semioticians see all semiotic action as social action, as embedded in larger economic and cultural practices and power relations. However, what makes social semiotics distinctive is its belief that all social action is semiotic, because changes in social practices are heavily affected by changes in discursive practices and their textual renditions (van Leeuwen, 2005). Having the power to break the rules of semiotic production also means having the power to intervene and possibly change the ideological currents that
That is, gender is widely perceived as simply being a natural occurrence that happens at birth. Yet, studying gender as a social-economic driver rather than just a natural phenomenon, allows us to understand that there is more to gender than simply human nature. In reality gender is continually been re-created through” human interactions, and is the texture and order of social life”. In other words, we identify the differences between male and a female based on the behavior each one of these respective statuses constitutes in our social life. Personally, I define gender as a human production that depends on everyone constantly “doing” gender.
Berger and Luckmann (1967:15-22) argue that social relativity is inherent in reality and knowledge, hence, its collection is defined by social contexts imperative for sociological analysis. They contend that analysis should be conscious of varieties of knowledge in human societies to maintain their position on the social construction of reality. For them, there is a relationship between human thoughts, history and social context. They draw on Mannheim’s work that society is imperative for the content of human ideas to argue that knowledge is always from a particular position. The influence of ideology can only be mitigated by the analysis of diverse socially
How and why the world really works and should work. Some conceptions of ideology see ideology as the structure of assumptions which are a representation of the imaginary relation of individuals to the real condition of existence. Ideology creates us as persons, it gives us a sense of being, an existence if you will. Through Ideology people accept or reject the current way of doing things, they understanding or explain what is natural or is perceived as, and accept their role in society. Ideology brings about socialization or is a partner in crime with, and brings about the process of shaping our cognitive and emotional interpretations in our social world.
GENDER AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT The term "gender" refers to the male and female roles shaped by a society, learned indi¬vidually and re-negotiated by each new gene¬ration. Male/female roles are determined pri¬marily by the social, cultural and economic organisation of a society, and by the prevailing religious, moral and legal perceptions. Female and male roles and scope for action are not static, but are subject to constant change. They can vary enormously from one society to another, and even within any one society there can be significant differences depending on social class, family status, and ethnic or reli¬gious background. These roles are not neutral but characterised by different possibilities for making choices, and different rights and deci¬sion-making powers; generally to the disad¬vantage of women.