Examine the factors affecting power relationships and the division of labour between couples Domestic labour is housework, childcare and paid work. In 1955, Parsons suggested that the husband and wife have different roles within the family; the man’s role was named instrumental. He is expected to achieve success at work and financially support the family whereas the wife was expected to look after the house, raise the children emotionally and cook. This was named the expressive role. Parsons said that these roles made things ‘nice and functional’.
Functionalist Murdock suggested as children we are socialised into societies shared norms and values and he believed that males provide the economic roles and females provided the expressive role. Therefore it is natural for women to play the expressive role in the household looking after the family’s emotional needs. However, radical feminist Ann Oakley argues that the role of the housewife is a social construction and isn’t linked to the female role. The housewife role makes sure that women stay inferior to men making it difficult for them have careers. Women carry out the triple burden in the household; the domestic labour, emotional labour, and paid labour.
The Domestic Division of Labour refers to the roles that men and women play in relation to housework, childcare and paid work. Parsons (1995) argues that in a traditional nuclear family the roles of husband and wife are segregated, in his view the husband plays an instrumental role geared towards achieving success at work so he can provide financially, being the breadwinner. The woman has an expressive role geared towards primary socialisation of children and meeting the emotional needs. Parsons said that these roles made things ‘nice and functional’ for society. He also argued division of labour is based on biological differences between men and women, as women are naturally suited towards nurturing role and men to a powerful role.
Just the Way We Are Everyone thought that there are similar differences between males and females. Both genders are different through their social, emotional and intellectual qualities. Gender roles influence women and men in virtually every area of life including family and occupation, but are women and men subject to different roles or behavior expectations? Gender role by definition is,” the public image of being male or female that a person presents to others.” (Dictionary.com). In early American culture it was common for a women’s job to be an obedient housewife in clear contrast to the male’s duty to be a job holder.
Men need help and so do women; this truth lays the foundation for being able to celebrate differences and embrace positives that will assist in living a fuller life (McKinney Hammond 51). Godly women are to help (help mate) their husbands stay in place: Spiritually by praying (continual communication with God), fasting, applying the Word of God in her life and worshipping in truth; naturally by tending the house, him (sexually) and children. When a man’s house is in order, he is motivated to be the provider that is needed. Keep the house clean: however you can. If working, a student, etc.
The third stage is gender consistency. Children understand that gender is constant over time and situations. Kohlberg believed that children would only be able to start learning about gender-appropriate behaviour at this stage, as up to this point they believed that gender could change. There is support for the gender labelling stage. Rabban found that at the age of three, most children can identify their own gender but not what gender they would grow into.
That is the relationship between the two genders, and the relationship between gender and society. Girls and boys are encouraged to adopt female and male characteristics that are determined by society. Their behaviour is reinforced by praise or reward for being appropriately masculine or feminine. (Buckingham-Hatfield, 2000). Freud’s psychodynamic theory implies that a child’s gender identity is absent before the age of around three and that it is not fully formed
Gender roles refer to the set of social and behavioral rules that are considered to be socially appropriate for individuals of a specific sex in the context of a specific culture, which differ widely between cultures. There are different opinions as to whether observed gender differences in behavior and personality characteristics are, at least in part, due to cultural or social factors, and therefore, the product of socialization experiences, or they are due to biological and physiological differences. Views on gender-based differentiation in the workplace and in interpersonal relationships have often undergone profound changes as a result of feminist and/or economic influences, but there are still considerable differences in gender roles in almost all societies. It is also true that in times of necessity, such as during a war or other emergency, women are permitted to perform functions which in "normal" times would be considered a male role, or vice versa. Gender is used to describe those
GENDER AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT The term "gender" refers to the male and female roles shaped by a society, learned indi¬vidually and re-negotiated by each new gene¬ration. Male/female roles are determined pri¬marily by the social, cultural and economic organisation of a society, and by the prevailing religious, moral and legal perceptions. Female and male roles and scope for action are not static, but are subject to constant change. They can vary enormously from one society to another, and even within any one society there can be significant differences depending on social class, family status, and ethnic or reli¬gious background. These roles are not neutral but characterised by different possibilities for making choices, and different rights and deci¬sion-making powers; generally to the disad¬vantage of women.
The most significant part of this theory reveals that men feel that it is crucial to be respected, and it is important to preserve their independence, while women feel that it is more important to be liked, and they are always seeking a human connection. In short words Genderlect is the word used to describe the relationship between a speakers gender and the language that they use. For example, it is stereotypical accepted that women gossip, often discussing personal and domestic issues whereas men communicate at an exposed minimum level only to communicate important topics. This happens also with the sound of voices of different