122 As a process, gender creates the social differences that define “woman” and “man.” In social interaction throughout their lives, individuals learn what is expected, see what is expected, act and react in expected ways, and thus simultaneously construct and maintain the gender order pg. 123 As part of a stratification system, gender ranks men above women of the same race and class pg. 123 The dominant categories are the hegemonic ideals, taken so for granted as the way things should be that white is not ordinarily thought of as race, middle class or men as a gender. The characteristics of these categories define the Other as that which lacks the valuable qualities the dominants exhibit. Pg.
Oakley (1972, cited in Howson, 2013) refers to gender as the ‘psychological, social and representational differences between men and women, which are socially determined and culturally variable’. Combined with Fulcher & Scott’s definition of gender, it can be assumed that males are characteristically expected to feel, think and behave in a masculine manner, whilst females are expected to do the same in a feminine manner. (Fulcher & Scott, 2011, 151). In contrast to
From the very moment we are born, our gender plays a vital role in shaping our lives. It determines our identity through our attitudes, our behaviours, and the path in which our life is going to take due to status, stereotyping, gender roles (McDermott & Hatemi 2011). Whilst gender and sex are commonly grouped together, they do not mean the same thing. A person’s sex refers to the biological characteristics distinguishing male and female, whereas gender refers to the social, cultural and psychological components of what it means to be feminine or masculine. This implies that all people can be placed into either category, when it isn’t in fact this simple.
I feel that our concepts of gender and sex contribute to the ways we embrace gender and sex in diversity. I feel that we look at males in one light and females in another, we all at some point expect men to be the ones that are tough, and brave and look at women as being emotional. When it could be the other way around. There are still those who feel that women should be home makers and not working to where men should be out bringing home the bacon. Do our concepts of gender and sex contribute to our understanding of sexual orientation?
However, not everyone agrees with the heavy stereotypes laid down by the social order such as male dominance and proper courting. Marie de France is one of these people. She depicts her views of gender expectations through literature. Within the poem Guigemar, Guigemar and his lady fulfill and contradict what would be considered as gender norms within society: female inferiority, traditional courtship, and male dominance. Marie de France does this to criticize and combat the societal expectations and inherent inequalities in Norman England.
Herland, Gender Expectations in Society The cultural and social setting affects the acceptance of gender expectations is a society. The role that men and women play in society is influenced by the expectations of each and is formed over time. Traditions are created and are difficult to transform when there needs to be adjustments in these beliefs and philosophies. Different societies view women and men’s roles in various ways. Although fictional, in the book Herland, the men arrive in a different society and each man responds in different ways to what they perceive as foreign culture, “there was no accepted standard of what was ‘manly’ and what was ‘womanly’” (Gilman79).
My research will try to explain and discuss the differences in spiritual as well as cultural situations between men and women gender roles. Hopefully I will give the understanding of why woman have to obey the man in spite of the spiritual hierarchy and why woman continue to play the subservient role there. Gender roles differ in all parts of the world. These pivotal elements of obedience derived from a patriarchal society that expects women to play the subservient position. Is it fair for women to have the same rights as men?
These factors may be due to occupational segregation, which is when workers are excluded from certain jobs due to various circumstances regarding gender and class. It is important that our society accepts different genders in all occupations, but the social norm about women or African Americans being accepted in any occupation is far from being reached without being
However this difference varies across cultures. Berry et al suggested that conformity differences between male and females were highest in tight sedentary societies this suggests that it is cultural difference on gender roles. There is an alternative explanation of the world wide division of labour. Eagley and wood argue that the division is an indirect outcome of
Gender inequality is amongst us all in any given society. Although gender is not as simple as may seem. Gender comes into play along with a number of different aspects such as sex, gender and gender roles. Each of these aspects play a significant part when speaking of the different social problems encountered by men and women. Sex makes up the biological differences; of male or female.