By the time we reached late childhood and adolescence our concept of gender identity and sexual orientation is firmly entrenched (Wood, 2010). Our behavior, aspirations and attitudes is also strongly influenced by the gender role expectations in particular cultures. This essay will relate, contrast sex and gender in society and how important it is for sociologists to distinguish them both. The term “sex” is the natural biological genetic makeup that distinguishes males from females and in particular the sexual organs and their characteristics. Bodies are, so we think, natural, God- given, sacred, hardwired.
The women’s movement and the consequent development of feminist ideas in the 1960s and 1970s influenced the question of gender and began emphasise the importance of gender as a concept of its own. (Howson, 2013, 51). To understand the differences between male and female, it is important to formulate a basic distinction between gender and sex. The key distinctions to note are based around biology and social arrangements. Oakley (1972, cited in Howson, 2013) refers to gender as the ‘psychological, social and representational differences between men and women, which are socially determined and culturally variable’.
Outline and evaluate the Biological approach to gender development The biological approach to gender development tells us that sex determines if an individual is genetically a male or female but that gender determines your own feelings about who you are as a person, either masculine or feminine, and this is due to the differences in their brains. This usually is due to the chromosomes a person has or hormonal differences. Every individual has 23 pairs of chromosomes. Women have 2 X chromosomes while men have an X and a Y chromosome. As an embryo, a male’s Y chromosome starts to produce testosterone and other male sex hormones.
In fact, that is another theory she criticises alongside with hormonal determination of sexual behaviour and pair bonding. On the opposing avenue, Ridley holds a view contradictory to the attitudes of Lloyd and argues for evolutionary adaptation. He presents the “Emma-Bovary” theory because it links the three universal features of the mating system regarding females. The following report will elaborate on Lloyd’s criticism of the several theories posed on the evolution of female orgasm and highlights her alternate explanation. A plethora of different opinions on female orgasm had flourished prior to Lloyd, which essentially in time encouraged her to propose her perspective.
Nikou Mehdizadeh Bajan Queen’s, Nebulous Scenes: Sexual Diversity in Barbados Critical Analysis The article Bajan Queens, Nebulous Scenes: Sexual Diversity by David Murray is about the people he conducted research through his fieldwork on the individuals who identify themselves as ‘queens” in the island of Barbados. In their society, a ‘queen’ was a term coined with someone who was considered ‘transgender’, (in a north American context) or someone born with male gentilia but saw themselves as a girl (Murray 2009:2). Throughout the article, Murray argues that even though the diversity of sexuality in Barbados is influenced by North American values and identities, a large part of how these ‘queens’ identify themselves is based on their local beliefs and principles. In my perspective, the article discussed a good understanding of this specific group of people but may have been bias. In this critical analysis, we will first summarize the article based on the author’s thesis, then it will be compared to the readings in the textbook Cultural Anthropology.
Biological explanations of gender development by Andy Watson The biological approach takes an extreme nature view of gender development as it believes that an individual’s gender is decided at conception. However this is a reductionist view as both social learning theory and psychodynamic theory have shown that our environment plays an important role in shaping our gender identity. Gender is a psychological term, which may reflect a person’s biological sex but is more to do with how they behave or think. This contrasts with the term sex which refers to biological status as male or female. When a foetus is formed, it has 2 sex chromosomes which decide if the foetus will be male or female.
After reading “Doing Gender” by Candace West and Don H. Zimmerman and “Gender, Black Feminism, and Black Political Economy” by Patricia Hill Collins I’ve came to the realization that the term gender has a completely different meaning than what I previously thought. Candace West’s and Don H. Zimmerman’s main purpose in the article “Doing Gender” is to try to provide a different insight to the typical way of which sex and gender are perceived. They claim that sex was taught as something biological that you are born and determined through “anatomy, hormones, and physiology.” Gender on the other hand, was described to be an “achieved status” which is determined through “psychological, cultural, and social means.” The authors talk about these
The Dominant Substance People question whether sex is natural or not. Sex is the accumulation of the characteristics that distinguish organisms on the basis of their reproductive function. Correct, it’s obvious that sex distinguishes whether a person is a male or female. Or, does it? Studies believe that sex refers to the genitals, musculature, body shapes and hormones.
How do gender and sex contribute to the concepts and constructions of masculinity and femininity? Gender and sex contribute to the concepts and constructions of masculinity and femininity in many ways. Gender and sex concepts and constructions of masculinity and feminity of being able to tell the difference between the two. They show them as being completely different like males being the protector and the ladies as being caring and emotional Do our concepts of gender and sex contribute to the ways we embrace gender and sex in diversity? I feel that our concepts of gender and sex contribute to the ways we embrace gender and sex in diversity.
She developed her theory mostly founded on the postulation that social and cultural surroundings fundamentally direct a person to the development of his or her personality. Horney was entirely cognizant of Freud’s rather prejudiced assumptions, particularly when it concerned sexual roles. Horney obviously believed that a person’s sex was determined by biology. Conversely, society typically has the final say in what is or is not acceptable for either sex. She fully understood that society is the last influential outlook in how behavior transforms and is the main factor that characterizes gender.