In a sample girls scored lower on math self-efficacy. However, scores for reading were comparable. Much of the research uses personality factors which included self-esteem and confidence to explain the various levels of accomplishments and competence of women when compared to men. Women that are more vocationally secure are known to show more interest and competence in the area of science. It was proven that men were more confident in their math ability than women.
When one talks about having a sense of self-esteem, what are we really referring to? According to psychology expert, Kendra Cherry, the term self-esteem is used to describe a person’s overall sense of self-worth and personal value. In Rick Bragg’s excerpt, “100 Miles per Hour, Upside Down and Sideways,” Bragg conveys images of the vehicles that he drove and what it was like to drive them, but he also announces how the performance of driving a fast car changed the way that he saw both himself and his place in the community (37). Although Rick Bragg’s high elevated sense of self-esteem had a positive outcome in enabling him to gain self-confidence, dominance, and a sense of self-worth, periodically, it also inserted him into impending situations. Self-esteem primarily indicates having confidence and satisfaction in oneself (“Self-esteem”).
Hall (1980) suggested that females tend to be better at using and decoding nonverbal communicating cues, especially facial expressions. However, males appear to have an advantage with certain aspects of emotional control and regulation Riggio (1986). Also, in order to further investigate the idea that females have better communication skills than males Hall (2005) published an observational study on nonverbal gender differences and discussed the cultural reasons as to those differences. In her study, she noted females as smiling and laughing more, as well as having a better understanding of others’ nonverbal cues. She believed that females were encouraged to be more emotionally expressive in their
There are few gender differences in aggression in infancy, boys are more likely than girls to investigate and be involved in aggressive incidents by the time they were toddlers. Boys and girls Aggressive patterns differ in important ways; boys are more likely than girls to retaliate after being attacked and they are more likely to attack a male than a female. Boys are less likely than girls to engage in negative self evaluation, they less likely to anticipate parental disapproval for acting aggressively and they are also more likely to approve of aggression. When girls attempt to resolve conflicts they tend to use strategies as verbal objection and negotiation methods that may make the escalation of a quarrel into overt aggression less likely There is a link between hormones and aggression; this can be seen clearly in adolescence when hormone levels rise. Brooks and Reddon
Gender and educational achievement It is commonly said that girls are better in their educational achievement than boys. It is also said that boys are more likely to underachieve than girls. However, the Gender and Education Association say that, “it ignores other differences between young people, particularly of ethnicity and class, which actually have a far greater effect on results.” This means that it is difficult to say that girls are better than boys because there are a number of factors that influence it. Feminists believe that the education system is male-controlled and dominated by men, just like the work force is. Feminists argue that the education system is just a primary preparation for leading into the future work force.
Similarly at AS and A level, girls have a better chance of passing and achieving higher grades. For example in 2006, 95.8% of girls passed two or more a levels, whereas 94% of boys passed. One of the internal factors which also play an important part in the gender differences in achievement is the teacher’s attention. Joan Swann and David Graddol found that boys are generally more boisterous and attract the teachers gaze more often than girls, therefore receiving more chances to speak. Nevertheless, they found that the way teachers interacted with girls was more positive because it focused on schoolwork rather than behaviour.
Result showed that CCET group reported much higher marital quality after training than the control group. This supports Duck's theory as it provides empirical support thus higher external validity so this can be used as a model for the breakdown of romantic relationships. One limitation for this theory comes from
Bem argued that such individuals are more adaptable in different situations, have higher self-esteem and a greater awareness sense of emotional well being. Bem stressed that androgynous men and women have a different cognitive style from traditionally sexed- typed people because an androgynous person when faced with a decision about how to behave responds independently of any gender concept whereas a traditionally sex-typed person determines what would be appropriate from their gender using gender schemas. Supporting the idea that there is a link between androgyny and flexibility, Bem found that masculine and androgynous individuals showed lower levels of conformity than feminine women. However, these findings are not really surprising. The Male scale on the BSRI measure assertiveness and resisting pressures to conform, and the Female scale measures femininity in terms of nurturance and expressive traits.
Thus, differential subjective appraisals still appear to be operating in the selection process. In addition, there were consistent effects for gender with males being rated higher than females although the resumes were all designed to be equivalent. The gender bias related to the “beauty is beastly” effect may be stronger and more pervasive than previously believed. Irrespective of the recent surge in the attention given to legality in personnel decisions, attractiveness appears to remain an integral component of selection processes. From a practical standpoint, HR managers, and all those involved in the hiring process, should be
Relationship to Background Research This investigation has provided more support that females are more dissatisfied with their bodies than males. This was found in Harner and Adler’s study where the findings showed that women tend to rate their ideal figure much thinner than the figure they perceive themselves to have. The same findings have been discovered in the study conducted by Fallon and Rozin almost 25 years ago as they found that males chose similar figures for their perceived and ideal body shape or chose ideals that were heavier than their current size whereas females would chose a perceived figure that was much heavier than their ideal. The results obtained from this investigation also mirror the ideas put forward in the cultural ideal hypothesis. The difference between the values marked on the scales for perceived and ideal have a greater difference in female participants than with males which shows that while males move