Just like Cavour, he used tricky politics to unify his country and was thought to be Machiavellian. Both Bismarck and Cavour were conservative in the sense that they wanted a strong leader and they used nationalism to their advantage. In both unifications, the use of manipulative politics by Cavour and Bismarck lead to events such as political warfare. In Italy, Cavour believed that only French intervention could defeat Austria and lead to unification of Italy and therefore he sent troops to aid the French in the Crimean war in order to gain their sympathy. When he started getting prepared for war, Austria demanded that Piedmont should demobilize.
Revolutions between 1820-1821, 1831-1832 and 1948-1949 were all ultimately overthrown to some extent by Austrian force. Prince Clement Metternich, the Austrian chancellor, was a passionate opponent of Italian Nationalism. A main catalyst for this was the issue of Austrian pride. The Liberals, Radicals and Nationalists ideas within Italy (that the people has a right to some say in government, fairer distribution of wealth and greater independence) would completely undermine Austrian control over Italy. In the interest of Austria’s security, Metternich was keen to suppress liberal and nationalists movements, and was determined to maintain dominance so that Austria would not appear weak.
The Paris peace settlement was a key in both of the leaders foreign policies, as they both were weakened in the treaty of Versailles. Both of the leaders put forward a very radical fascist ideology that idealized national expansion and military strengths as the proof of national strength and prestige of the country. Differences in the two fascist leaders policies start to show in their aims and the planning of them. As Hitler was trying to make Germany the absolute dominant power in Europe, Mussolini's aims were more on the prestige, as he wanted to make Italy "Respected and feared". But the similarities were also great as they both were great opportunists and aggressive expansionists, they wanted to expand their countries to become the dominant powers in Central Europe (Germany) and the Mediterranean (Italy).
However Italians such as Garibaldi, Cavour, Victor Emanuel and Mazzini sought to unify the area and create one nation. Separatism was an important factor in Italian Unification; however to first understand separatism it must be defined in the context of Italian Unification. Separatism in Italy at the time was the divided nature of the “geographical area known as Italy”, with its different states, rules and languages. The splitting up of Italy into these sets of smaller Pre-Napoleonic states at the Congress of Vienna was the main reason behind the increased feeling of separatism felt at the time in Italy. Separatism contributed positively to Italian unification in some ways, for instance it led to a sense of pride in certain states which led to an increased feeling of resentment towards foreign powers that were occupying, or held power over some states in Italy at the time.
The rise of a more independent and audacious judiciary had lead to what Paul Ginsborg calls a “rising tide of legalism” (Ginsborg, DATE: 58) that came in the form of the “manu pilute” investigations. Headed by proactive prosecutors such as Milanese magistrate Francesco Saverio Borrelli, the corruption investigations brought the status quo of Italian politics to its knees. By 1994, the Christian Democrats had been spilt into several pieces including the Popular Party of Italy and the Christian Democratic Centre. The disappearance of Italy’s major
Many historians argue greatly over the short term significance on Italy as caused by the Austro-Prussian war. It is largely accepted that the social and economic problems that already faced Italy before 1866 had been heightened – be it rising taxes for the already disgruntled population of Italy or Italy as a nation being humiliated as a result of the conflict’s armistice and the cession of Venetia. However there were some, albeit minor, benefits to society including the changing attitudes attributed to the feeling of nationalism within Italy as it can be seen that Italy ‘is able to set aside personal and party interests and form into one solid phalanx’. The cession of Venetia can be considered the largest area of controversy, whether Italy felt proud to have almost completed the unification process, or, conversely, whether Italy should celebrate this cession begrudgingly, as it was only due to the intervention of other powers that this acquisition even happened – after all the decisive battle was fought on 3rd July by Austria and Prussia at Koeniggraatz. Whether or not unification was slightly hindered for the duration of war, it should be known that only 4 years after the crushing defeats of the Austro-Prussian war, the Franco-Prussian war took place, enabling a finally totally geographically united peninsula of Italy.
The Italian Unification, also known as Risorgimento, was mainly lead by two important figureheads: Count Camillo di Cavour and Giuseppe Garibaldi. These two people made massive reforms in Italy, which created the Italy as we know today. However, these figureheads have different ways of thinking and unique styles of decision making, leading them to use completely different strategies while unifying Italy. The modern country of Italy was formed from numerous individual Italian States geographically linked, through a process called Risorgimento. It began when Napoleon’s reign started to end and the Congress of Vienna in 1815, and ended with the Franco-Prussian War in 1870-1871 (2).
Italy wanted to become a country instead of individual states. This would make them more powerful against the other big countries across Europe. They had tried to do this previously with revolutions in the 1820’s and 30’s but failed. They hoped they would be more successful in 1848 with the appointment of Pope Pius X1. The main reasons I will be looking at for why the revolutions failed are The Pope’s Allocution, they didn’t have a common goal, France, lack of foreign support and also the power of Austria.
The main leaders of ‘World War 1’ in the ‘Triple Entente’ were George V (British Empire), Raymond Poincaré (France) and Nicholas II (Russia). For the opposition who were the main leaders of the ‘Triple Alliance (Central Powers),’ they were Wilhelm II (Germany), Franz Joseph I as well as Karl I (Austria-Hungary) and Mehmed V as well as Mehmed VI (Ottoman Empire). [Italy changed sides from the ‘Central Powers’ to
In the period between 1815 and 1850, Italy was in a constant state of unrest. Following the defeat of Napoleonic France, the Congress of Vienna in 1815 was arranged to redraw the European continent. In Italy, the Congress restored the pre-Napoleonic patchwork of independent governments, either directly ruled or strongly influenced by the currant European powers, particularly Austria. But groups in several Italian states began to push the idea of a unified Italian state again, promoting the idea of nationalism. The Austrian Empire forcefully repressed the idea of nationalism that was growing on the Italian peninsula, as well as in the other parts of Habsburg domains.