Gardner Intelligence Essay

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Gardner Intelligence Dee Reich PSY/300 September 12, 2011 Liz West, LPC, NCC Gardner Intelligence The author has written this paper to discuss several of the multiple intelligences, which were developed by Howard Gardner. According to Kowalski and Westen (2009), “Gardner views intelligence an ability or set of abilities that is used to solve problems or fashion products that are of consequence in a particular cultural setting.” Gardner differs from other theorists in regard to intelligence by believing it is not how smart one is, rather how is one smart (Kowalski and Westen, 2009). How does one determine if another is smart, or of high intelligence? Many psychologists have based intelligence through testing which measures the mental abilities which are required to be successful in school (Kowalski and Westen, 2009). Yet, more recently (1983 and 1999), Howard Gardner proposed intelligence needs to be viewed identifying eight intelligences. These intelligences are; linguistic, musical, logical-mathematical, naturalist, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, intrapersonal, and interpersonal. People who possess linguistic intelligence are word smart people who learn best through language, which includes speaking, writing, reading, and listening. Linguistically intelligent people are able to verbally or in writing explain, convince, and express themselves (Johnson and Lamb, 2000). Linguistic intelligent people enjoy writing and creating with words. They also enjoy e-books, interactive books found on CD-ROM, and other text-based software (Johnson and Lamb, 2000). Interestingly, linguistic intelligent people enjoy being a secretary, taking notes, and using word processors. They enjoy organizing the group's text and putting projects together. They also enjoy the researching, listening, reading, and writing aspects of a research project,

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