The essay will be looking at these risk factors and their effects with particular reference to the Youth Justice System, in addition to other agencies. The essay will then go on to examine some studies conducted into risk factors, including Farrington’s work. It will also look at any policies or procedures that have been introduced as a result of the perceived importance of risk factors, such as …………, before endeavoring to decide how valuable the use of risk factors can be in the management of young offenders. Risk factors can be simply defined as those variables which may predict an “increased probability of later offending” (Kazdin et al., 1997, cited in Newburn, 2007, p.841). The Youth Justice Board, one of the major bodies involved in working with youth offenders, state that they are “working to prevent offending and reoffending by children and young people under the age of 18” (Justice, 2012).
Models of Organized Crime Executive Summary Gene Schuldt CJA/384 10/20/2014 Thomas Borton Models of Organized Crime Executive Summary This paper is a summary about models of organized criminal. It will explain the difference between bureaucratic and patron client relations within the organized criminal activity. It will include summaries and differences between main models in organized crime and examples to understand the difference. The patron client relations is based on the social participation and mutual respect within the community and the lower-level client that is not directly affiliated with the organized criminal activity but yet associated through the mutual support within the criminal structure. Individuals within the patron-client relationship are at a lower-level, by committing the same acts within the community but are not directly related to the organized criminal organization by involvement within the company.
Social Organized Crime Perspective University of Phoenix CJA/384 October 03, 2011 Social Organized Crime Perspective Family, school, and churches have become to be known as social institutions, but little known is that organized crime is also a social institution. In the discussion ahead will be about defining the term social institution and how it applies to organized crime. Then continue the discussion with what empirical and speculative theories are most applicable to organized crime and criminal behavior. Social institutions are a complex set of norms, roles, positions, and values that are in certain types of social structures. These social structures organize stable patterns of human activity that deal with fundamental problems, and produce life-sustaining resources, productive individuals, and a vibrant societal structures in any given environment.
Abstract This paper will explore and discuss the difference in opinion regarding crime and who should be held accountable for criminal activity. The views of social responsibility and social problems will be examined, along with the perspectives that each holds to justify their belief. Theories such as Determinate Sentencing that holds the value of social responsibility in response to crime, and also the Constructionist theory that places that blame on society as to why a person commits a crime. In the end I believe that Social/Individual responsibility is the most appropriate way to approach crime. Perspectives of Social Problems and Social Responsibility Within criminology there has been multiple theories suggested to explain the numerous motives behind why crime exists in our world.
There are specific strategies that focus more on community involvement; such as youth workers providing recreational activities and safe places for youths to hang out. Also, in order to discourage youths from gang related behaviour they are included in urban renewal projects, creating job opportunities and a sense of pride and accomplishment. The crucial lesson to be learnt from research, within Australia and overseas, is that more than one strategy is required by the police and communities in response to youth gangs in order to encourage the participation and involvement of young people. Rob White’s article ‘Police and Community Responses to Youth Gangs’ is very specific in the issues raised, yet somewhat complex in some areas. Although, after analysis it is clear in making us aware of a growing problem by providing solutions.
However, the language and form of punishment used to rehabilitate and punish children differs greatly from that used in adult courts (Siegel, 2009). The juvenile court system serves two major functions; keeping juvenile offenders away from the society and rehabilitating or correcting them. Correction helps to hold juveniles accountable to their action by helping them to realize the wrong they have done. In addition, correction facilities help to educating, and imparting social skills among juvenile offenders. Through the correction function of juvenile court system, young offenders are influenced to realize their potential by helping them to build acceptable vocational and interpersonal skills.
Is rationale to assume that parental and family risk factors played a vital part in the life of a criminal, because they are a product of their surroundings. Understanding the mental process of a criminal behavior can assist on identify the problems such as antisocial behaviors. It identifies the individuals with their parents and other family members of the family. Taking a look at the parents and siblings will give researcher a different spectrum that can or may not voucher for the actions of the criminal, it brings all the issues about their past to surface. Parental and family risk factors effects and shapes the individual into the person that they are today.
Pioneered by Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck, the developmental theory of crime, integrates sociological, psychological, and economic elements into more multifarious developmental views of crime causality. In an effort to produce a more holistic view of a criminal career, which incorporates its inception, prolongation, and dissolution, social scientist have established developmental theories. When applied specifically to intimate partner violence these theories can provide insight into the behavioral patterns of abusers. Intimate partner violence (IPV), according to the CDC, is “a pattern of abusive behavior in any relationship that is used by one partner to gain or maintain power and control over another intimate partner.” This abuse can be physical, sexual, emotional, economic, or psychological actions or threats that influence the behavior of another person. Intimate partner violence is a serious problem particularly in the United States because on average, 24 people per minute are victims of rape, physical violence, or stalking by an intimate partner in the United States, which sums up to more than 12 million women and men over the course of a year.
The problem for any society is that these boundaries are unclear and change over time. While a certain, limited amount of crime may perform positive functions for society, according to Durkheim, too much crime has negative consequences. His most well known concept was that of 'anomie', which has been widely used in sociology. According to Durkheim, society is based on people sharing common values which form the basis for actions. However, in periods of social change, people may be freed from the social control by collective conscience and start to look after their own self need rather than following social values.
Sutherland’s first three principles discuss how criminal behaviour is learned within intimate personal groups and through a process of communication (Lilly, Ball & Cullen, 2015, p. 45). This fits with the family. One can use Leonardo as an example. Due to the fact that he grew up in a family that was very involved with crime, Leonardo would have been exposed with criminal culture growing up more than conventional culture, which according to Sutherland, would allow him to accept the criminal lifestyle easier. This point also fits in with principle six states that a person will get involved in criminal activity due to: “an excess of definitions favorable to violation of law over definitions unfavorable to violation of the law” (Lilly, Ball & Cullen, 2015, p. 45).