Agriculture made human communities dependent on relatively few plants; the main crops which they grew rather than on the many different kinds of plants which hunter-gathers used. (Burt) To survive, agriculturalists had to gather all their food for the year at one or two or three harvest times, rather than gathering year round. Agriculture brought class divisions because farming introduced the concept of land ownership and thereby, there was a division among labor and owner, and on the one hand, it caused the elite became wealthier, but on the other hand, most people became poorer. In hunting and gathering society,
A few of the key ideas he discovered were that lots of functions that the family would take care for in a pre-industrial society were now taken care of by the state in industrial society such as health care or education. Parsons also said that the industrial nuclear family is isolated - meaning is has few ties with local kinship and economic systems. This means that the family can up sticks and move easily. In short his basic conclusion after his study was that family structure adapts to the needs of society. Parsons also said that industrialisation changed roles and status in the family, he said that status for an individual in a pre industrial society was decided at birth by the family they were born into and that in a industrial society the status of an individual was decided by his or her success outside of their family.
Thernstrom found that because Americans very rarely stayed in one place, it would have been difficult for them to form any type of “common identity or common grievance” that would have led to some type of socialist system. (8) Although we’ve echoed this point in our first class meetings, and Laurie mentions that the findings were “new and compelling” to some scholars, he cites that another historian, Selig Perlman, had already made the same argument in 1928. (8) The first half of Laurie’s book takes us through the transition of the simple American farmer. At first, they were simply concerned with supporting their family. There was not even a use for money, as most families bartered with each other.
Families were considered to be a multi-functional institution consisting of an extended kinship. Because of the extended Kinship, family sometimes had a political function. Work was carried out through the home which gave it an economical function and as it socialised children and gave them job training it could also be said to have had an educational function, however not to the same level as the higher classes, who received a full home education by nannies and tutors. Medical care was still very primitive and infant mortality was high. There was no welfare system, hunger and depravation were prevalent.
Millions lived apart from fathers who served in the military. Many also saw less of their mothers, as the federal government was now encouraging even the mothers of young children to work outside the home. Daycares appeared, but the great majority of working wives relied on
During that period of time, many changes took place, some were short term while others were long term. Family life became hard for people as families started splitting up and started to live in villages or other towns. Many people moved to other towns or villages hoping that their family would be safe there and the plague wouldn’t spread there. But they were wrong. The plague followed them there but the living conditions were better as the houses were stronger, weatherproof and more comfortable.
They were not contributing to the market. For example, the farming industry has been at a low meaning that most of them were "just scraping a living". The new immigrants to America were given low paid jobs. They had no money to spend on radios or refrigerators. In the old industries (e.g.
When the United States first began, areas were mostly rural and there large cities were few. According to USA Online (2012), only Philadelphia, New York, and Boston had more than 15,000 inhabitants. People would travel by wagon to visit their neighbors or go into town. People knew nothing about rush hour traffic because there was no commuting from workplace to home. There were no shopping malls, fast food, convenience stores, or super Wal-Marts to visit.
What can be done to reduce illiteracy? Illiteracy is the inability to read and write, either because of lack of education or because of learning difficulties. Rural areas have had the tendency to lack an appropriate literacy rate in the past due to the people who live in those areas working on a farm more often than going to school. As a result, their entire family suffered slightly. Less time on the farm due to new inventions that improve farming efficiency allowed for more time getting an education.
This was probably the most interaction people would have with each other; yet, a very respectful and genuine concern of welfare seemed to show among the rural communities. When the Industrial Revolution approached, the migration of people toward areas closer to the factories increased tremendously. As the population in urban areas enlarged, “chaos” began to ensue within the new community. Overpopulation and unsanitary living conditions transpired. Living close to the factories was convenient but uncomfortable and unhygienic since a structured city had not been developed yet.