The approach presents the family as a family isolated from wider kinships because of the mobility required by labour markets in industrial societies. The image that functionalists create of the family involves the support for the nuclear family from the wider welfare state. It also suggests that any childcare for the family would be provided by non-family agencies, for example; playgroups. The usefulness of this ‘privatised nuclear family’ is that it gives closure within the family, allowing stability and support. It’s beneficial as there are male and female role models available for the children, and it gives the parents more control of how their children are brought up.
316) · Foucault - that social order is produced through the power of knowledge and discourse (that which is talked about), which are the products of historical processes (Silva, E, pg. 319) Buchanan’s and Monderman’s views on ordering public space will be used to further illustrate Goffman’s focus on the way people negotiate interactions with each other, his interactional order and Foucault’s emphasis on authoritative knowledge and application of order by authorities or experts. The two propositions are similar in that both are concerned with the wider questions of understanding how society is produced and reproduced and specifically how social order is made and remade. Goffman and Foucault both sought to make the often invisible social order visible albeit through differing mechanisms, Goffman through metaphor and Foucault through historical analysis. Similar claims were made around the ways of understanding singular issues in interaction, although Foucault focuses on the power of historical precedent and powerful discourse on shaping the individuals and society while Goffman focuses on individuals shaping society through their interactions, rituals and habits.
Assess the view that gender roles and relationships have become more equal in modern family life (24 marks) : The domestic division of labour refers to the roles that men and women play in relation to housework, childcare and paid work. Sociologists are interested in whether men and women share domestic tasks equally. Talcott Parsons (1955) argues that this division of labour is based on biological differences, with women ‘naturally’ suited to the nurturing role and men to that of provider. He claims that this division of labour is beneficial to both men and women, to their children and to wider society. In Talcott Parsons functionalist model of the family there is a clear division of labour between the two spouse, ‘Instrumental’ and ‘Expressive’ roles.. Talcott Parsons states that the husband has an instrumental role, geared towards achieving success at work so that he can provide for the family financial, he is the breadwinner.
Murdock suggested that the family must create a stable satisfaction of the sex drive, Reproduction of the next generation, socialisation of the young and meeting the families’ economic needs. Talcott and Parsons later suggested that Murdock’s suggested roles of society had changed with industrialisation as the workforce had to be socially and geographically mobile for the industries and this is easier with nuclear families rather than extended families. He also argued that the family had lost two of its roles as industrialisation brought along specialised social institutions such as education and hospitals leaving the need for only the socialisation of young and the satisfaction of the sex drive. Within the nuclear families the mother and farther were appointed roles as males have instrumental characteristics making them more fit for work and females have expressive characteristics making them more fit for child care. This may be criticised as the functions may vary
Assess the functionalist view of the family Functionalism is when everything in society has a role to play in day-to-day life. A prime example of functionalism in society is the family. The family is seen as a social group characterized by common residence, economic co-operation and reproduction. It will involve at least two people who have a socially approved sexual relationship and one or more children (their own or adopted) of the sexually cohabiting adults. There are different views on the functionalism of the family and these views can change over time, between societies and between people in the same society.
From families we receive encouragement, love and life lessons. Families are the key tools that shape individuals into the person they want to become. Society says the best families are the traditional families. But in today’s society family structures have changed. In today’s society families consist of civil unions, single parents, and families that try to utilize and keep the same values that were present in the 1950’s.
He believes in reproduction, therefore having children at the right time, as without reproduction the society would cease to exist. He also has an economic point,where the family is seen as a unit,therefore they should all provide for each other. The final point is on education, he believes that the family is responsible for primary socialisation, as without socialisations there is no culture. Parsons on the other hand has two key points, the stabilisation of adult personalities- emotional support,fun element, distress etc, and the other key point is the same as Murdock’s, which is primary socialisation (education). The difference between primary socialisation and secondary socialisation is your surroundings.
Using the material from item A and elsewhere assess the contribution of functionalism to our understanding of families and households. Functionalists have a structural approach and believe that our behaviour is determined by society. It is based on a shared value consensus; this is where a set of social norms and functions are followed to meet goals and aims. Functionalists also believe that the family is the key essential part of all society. Functionalism is a Macro theory this means it is a large scale theory which has a broad array of information.
With family being the primary factor for being the way that we act functionalists believe it is important that the family socialises the children properly so that they can pass on these norms and values, This will there for ensure that the children will confirm to laws and rules. Functionalists favour the nuclear family as part of a post industrialisation family. This is because during the time that functionalism was around there weren't many extended families due to the factors such as the war. This would give the mother and father there separate roles within the family. The father would go out to be the “breadwinner” whilst the mother would stay at home to support the family emotionally and domestically such as cooking food and the safeguarding of children.
Family Systems and Healthy Development Liberty University Family Systems and Healthy Development In today’s world, families are dynamic and interdependent systems. The developmental processes of the children in the family are deeply affected by how the family system operates. However, a family’s structure does not determine whether it is a healthy family system or not. Today, families consist of single parents, stepparents, divorced parents, remarried parents, grandparents, aunts and uncles. They are all able to contribute to a healthy functioning family system by meeting each family member’s needs and encouraging positive communication (Jamiolkowski, 2008).