Function and Structure of Protein

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Essay: The structure and function of Protein Proteins are large compounds built up of sub-units called amino acids. There are 20 different amino acids; there are thousands of proteins that shape is determined by the specific sequence of amino acids in the chain. Proteins differ from Carbohydrates and Lipids because it contains nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Sulphur and sometimes phosphorous are also common elements found in protein. All amino acids have the same basic structure; containing NH2, at one end of the structure and the other end of the molecule a carboxyl group, -COOH. However each amino acid has a different R group. Protein synthesis in the body is a process called translation. Translation occurs in the cytoplasm that translates genetic codes assembled during DNA transcription into proteins. Cell structures called ribosomes help translate these genetic codes into the polypeptide chains. Proteins are built up from a linear sequence of amino acids. The amino group of one amino acid reacts with the carboxyl group of another with the elimination of water. The bond that is formed is called a peptide bond and the resulting is a peptide. Proteins are very large molecules and consist of long chains of many amino acids joined together. These chains are called polypeptides. Proteins have 4 hypothetical structures, the primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure. The primary structure is the order the amino acids are in. The secondary structure refers to the coiling and or folding of a peptide chain (chain of amino acids) that gives the protein its specific shape. There are two types: one being the alpha helix structure. This resembles a single helix structure like in DNA. The other folding and pleated shape is the beta-pleated sheet, this structure is held together by hydrogen bonds. The chains are adjacent to one another in

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