Full disclosure requires that publicly traded businesses use accrual based accounting and revenues are recognized as sales are earned. Full disclosure also requires that footnotes describe accounting procedures and provide details for unusual transactions. With companies such as Enron and WorldCom, the accounting field has an increased need for businesses to tell the truth in its financial statements. Full disclosure acts as the obligation for businesses to be truthful in its statements in order to protect the parties
As an auditor, understanding and testing internal control over financial requires knowledge of standards applicable to the corporation established by GAAP or IFRS. Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires mandatory reporting on internal controls by management and independent auditors. To obtain a system of internal control as mandated by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley, policies and procedures designed to provide reasonable assurance of the companies’ effort in achieving its objectives and goals. Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway
E2-1 (a) Accounting rule-making that relies on a body of concepts will result in useful and consistent pronouncements. TRUE (b) General-purpose financial reports are most useful to company insiders in making strategic business decisions. FALSE. General-purpose financial reporting helps users who lack the ability to demand all the financial information they need from an entity and therefore must rely, at least partly, on the information provided in financial reports. However, an implicit assumption is that users need reasonable knowledge of business and financial accounting matters to understand the information contained in financial statements.
Under Section 404 of the act, these findings must detail any uncovered control deficiencies or instances of employee fraud, and must also be reviewed and attested by the registered accounting firm. The authors of the report must certify that the report does not contain any false information, misleading statements or significant omissions, and that the financial statements and information included in the report accurately represent the financial condition of the company. Under Section 401 of the act, this representation must account for both balance and off-balance sheet debts, obligations and transactions in order to facilitate maximum transparency for shareholders (Nikolas, Daniel. Nd Effects of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act). The act serves as a guideline and governs what an accountant should and should not do when reporting financial flows.
Name two tools used to plan, schedule and monitor the activities during a systems implementation project. 12. The objective in designing any internal control system is to provide foolproof protection against all internal control risks. 13. A good _________ enables an accounting manager as well as auditors to follow the path of the data recorded in transactions form the initial source.
Corporate executives have come to realize that effective security protects the ultimate bottom line: that is, survival of the organization (Harowitz, 2003). Private industries or corporations strive to prevent loss, protect property and human assets. Ultimately, the goals of security are to promote a safe and secure environment and prevent loss. Since the resources of the public police are limited, it is in the best interests of public safety for police agencies to initiate cooperative efforts with the private sector to increase the quantity and improve the quality of crime prevention services (Lyman, 2005; Meese & Ortmeier, 2004; National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals, 1976). While the potential for a crime exists everywhere, it can be lessened by implementing certain measures to control a particular environment.
Everyone one from their employees all the way up to upper management and partners must adhere to the code of ethics put into place at the corporation. Microsoft recognizes that they face intense competition and will continue to face harsh competition across the markets of products and services, but yet they refuse to bend any rules in order to make it to the top. Microsoft also has a code of standards for their finance division that is separate but in addition to their ethical standards. The finance code of ethics demands the executives and the employees to act in a responsible manner and to avoid conflicts of interest. It also demands the employees to abide by the laws and regulation set forth by the state and federal governments.
Independence is one of the six ethical principles of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) Code of Professional Conduct. The other principles are responsibilities, the public interest, integrity, objectivity and independence, due care, and scope and nature of services. More specifically, audit team members are required to be objective and independent with regard to the audit by maintaining objectivity and being free of conflicts of interest in discharging professional responsibilities and by being independent in fact and appearance when providing auditing and other attestation services. The SEC has power to establish rules for any CPA associated with audited financial statements submitted to the commission. In here the influence of the SEC is very obvious.
This can be achieved through the following general principles: 1. Establishment of Responsibility - Setting clear expectations of your employees and making sure 2. Segregation of Duties and Segregation of Record Keeping - Making sure that no single individual remains 'unchecked' by others in his or her activities, and that the same people responsible for certain actions are not also solely responsible for recording those actions. 3. Documentation of Procedures - making sure that the expense reports are accurate and that original receipts are used for proof.
Evaluate the effectiveness of regulations such as Sarbanes-Oxley Act over minimizing the corporate fraud and protecting investors and make one (1) suggestion for improvement. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act is been very effective especially by protecting investors and improving the accuracy and reliability of corporate disclosures, and much of the law seeks to further this goal by imposing strict rules for audits and auditors of publicly traded companies, prevent insider trading and deals, requiring companies to adopt strict internal controls, and increasing the penalties for white collar crimes relating to investor fraud. As a matter of fact, the Act effects dramatic change across the corporate area to re-established investor confidence in the integrity