Freud believed that it was possible to link the psychosexual stages of development with adult neuroses. Freud identified that if the psychosexual stages of development where in any way interrupted at a certain time, then this would cause problems in later life. “Psychosexual development according to Freud proceeds as a series of interactions between dispositions and environment, mediated by a developing ego.” (Freud & Horney, Grossman,1986, p5) Thus, Freud stated that there were different stages of psychosexual
Finally, other psychoanalytical concepts will be discussed. Sigmund Freud was the founder of psychosexual and psychoanalytic theory. His psychosexual theory states that erogenous zones differ at various times throughout development (Cervone, & Pervin, 2010). The first stage is the oral stage which sensual gratification focuses on the mouth (Cervone, & Pervin, 2010). The second stage is the anal stage which Freud believed there is an enjoyment in the anus and in the movement of feces through the anal canal (Cervone, & Pervin, 2010).
In this essay Freud sets out his theory of psychosexual development. He asserts that there is in all humans an innate drive or instinct for pleasure, a sort of psychic energy, which he calls the libido and this energy needs to be discharged. He then goes on to describe how this drive finds outlet at the earliest stages of life, as babies, toddlers and infants and describes the oral, anal and phallic stages and the psychological effects of fixation at these stages. It is important to note that Freud separated sexual aims and objectives. His work on sexuality and perversions led to the wider theory of sexuality whereby he differentiated the sexual aim (the desire for pleasure) and the object (the person or thing used to fulfil the desire).
According to Sigmund Freud, as children grow up pleasure and sexual impulses shifts from the mouth to the anus and gradually shifts to the genitals. Freud later came to the conclusion that human passes through five stages of psychosexual development. Moreover, Erik Erikson amended Sigmund Freud’s theory because he assumed Freud misjudged some areas of human development. Erikson stated that human beings develop in psychosocial stages. The most important mode of motivation for human behavior is sexual in nature, According to Freud’s theory, on the other hand Erikson’s theory depicts that human motivation is influenced by human’s interaction with other people and social experiences.
Behaviourists believe that all behaviour is gained through conditioning. Firstly, classical conditioning claims that infants become attached to the person who feeds them or gives them pleasure, as food (the unconditioned stimulus) produces a sense of pleasure (unconditioned response). The food then becomes associated with the ‘feeder’ that then becomes a conditioned stimulus also producing a sense of pleasure. Secondly, operant conditioning (Dollard and Miller 1950) is used to integrate the perception of mental states. When an infant is hungry, this is uncomfortable and this creates a drive to reduce the discomfort.
Firstly there is exposure, and in this element, the patient is repeatedly presented with the feared stimulus until anxiety subsides, known as habituation. The exposures move gradually from least to most threatening in manner similar to systematic desensitization. However, If the pace is too slow, patients may lose motivation. The underlying principle of this explanation is that the anxieties persist due to negative reinforcement. ERP aims to break this cycle by forcing the patient to experience the stimulus and learn, through association and relaxation, that it no longer produces anxiety.
For example, an alcoholic who had liver damage caused by alcohol abuse would need a radical change of lifestyle quickly to preserve their life. Psychoanalysis may be unable to provide this. Conversely, there may be some addictions that would not respond so well to aversion therapy where therapy and counselling would effect a long term change. The behaviourist approach could also be used to target, and change, challenging behaviour in children and young people in residential care. This theory would argue that
11.Withdrawal syndrome: Symptoms associated with discontinuing the use of a habit-forming substance. Tolerance: Develop with prolonged use of a drug. 12. Explain the role of expectation in the influence of drugs on behavior. People who think they have taken a drug but really haven’t may display the effects of the drug because they expect to be affected by it.
Gregory’s Treatment Juan Olano Argosy University Gregory’s Treatment In Gregory’s case an appropriate form of therapy would be behavior therapy. Implementing this therapy would assist Gregory with the ability to learn healthier ways, thus replacing the anxiety he suffers when in social situations. Healthier and adaptive methods would replace his maladaptive drinking behavior (Miller, 2010). A crises is defined as a situation where known problem-solving techniques are not readily available to the patient (Miller, 2010). A crisis can lead to homicide or suicide if not properly treated.
Development of physiological tolerance and increased anxiety, depression and other symptoms could draw the person even deeper into his or her addiction. As the consequences associated with the behavior get more severe, a person feels like the problem is no longer in their control. Even when it reaches the point where the person is not getting anything positive out of it, the person may keep using to avoid the pain of having to quit the behavior. Many people dependent on substances report using substances long after they stop experiencing any enjoyable effects. The reason why I picked this model was because it looks at everything as a whole which includes the biological, psychological and sociological factors.