Next the freezing point which didn’t eliminate either of them. Next we look at the mass which was 7.465g/ml. This make me lean toward ethyl ether but the masses were still pretty close. Next we move to the solubility of the substances. They are both very soluble in alcohol and hexane so that doesn’t help, but in water ethyl ether is semi soluble and pentane is in soluble.
This technique prevents the product to contact other reactants, and leave the heating environment which might cause side reactions. The removal of the product also helps to shift the equilibrium position of the incomplete reaction to the right hand side, and prevents backwards reaction, resulting in an increased yield of products. This experiment also introduces the idea of azeotrope. An azeotrope is a mixture of two or more pure compounds in such a ratio that its composition cannot be changed by simple distillation. This is because when an azeotrope is boiled, the resulting vapour has the same ratio of constituents as the original mixture of liquids.
Out of all the acids that passed through, only one was found to be toxic. By using high performance liquid chromatography, a polar and nonpolar stationary phase that contained the toxin was mixed, and this isolated the toxin by itself. To ensure that that was the isolated toxin, they further broke it down to find its charge, size, and molecular shape. Mass spectrometry was then used to find the weight and formula of the toxin. By finding the formula, it had similar characteristics to an amino acid known as domoic acid.
We expect Pentane to be the most ideal because it’s boiling point is the furthest away from the boiling point of water. To test our hypothesis, we used heat to vaporize each gas, an ice bath to cool the gases down and measured the condensed liquid gas to calculate each gas’s constant. Methods: In this experiment, we first measured the mass of an empty flask using
Colligative Properties and Osmotic Pressure Lab Module 8 Abstract: This lab conducted I found to be quite interesting. I felt that it prepared and educated me well upon the foundation and understanding of colligative properties and osmotic pressure. Colligative properties are described as the various properties of a specific solution that rely on the overall concentration of solute molecules but not on their identities. These properties include, but are not limited to, boiling point, freezing point, vapor pressure deduction, boiling point elevation and the osmotic pressure. Osmotic pressure, one of the colligative properties previously discussed, is defined as the pressure used by the water flow through a membrane separating two solutions with different concentrations of various solutes.
When salt is applied to ice, it lowers the ice’s melting point. This means that even if the temperature is still very low, the ice can still melt. Salt melts ice because it lowers the freezing point of water around the ice. The ice melts and is unable to refreeze except at a much lower temperature. Melting point is an important concept to understand in this experiment.
Purpose: The following lab was conducted in order to determine the iron (〖Fe〗^(2+)) content in an unknown sample by way of reduction-oxidation titration using a standardized potassium permanganate solution. Theory: Titration is one of the most commonly used methods for determining the amount or concentration of an unknown substance. Chemical analysis can be performed on redox titrations, if the following conditions are met: “The reaction is thermodynamically spontaneous enough to be stoichiometric”, “The reaction is kinetically fast enough to give operationally ‘instant’ results”, “No side reactions occur”, and “a satisfactory indicator exists”. These conditions are what makes potassium permanganate (〖KMnO〗_4) a very useful analytical oxidation agent as it easily fits the criteria. The half reactions for this system are: Oxidation of 〖Fe〗^(2+): 〖Fe〗^(2+)→ 〖Fe〗^(3+)+1e^- Reduction of 〖MnO〗_4^-: 〖MnO〗_4^-+8H_3 O^++5e^-→ 〖Mn〗^(2+)+12H_2 O Which produces the following overall equation: 〖MnO〗_4^-+8H_3 O^++5〖Fe〗^(2+)→5〖Fe〗^(3+)+〖Mn〗^(2+)+12H_2 O Equilibrium is initially obtained at a very slow rate, therefore the titration is carried out in the presence of excess sulphuric acid (H_2 〖SO〗_4) at a high temperature; in order to drastically increase the rate at which equilibrium is attained.
The purpose of this lab was to find the molecular weight of two unknown substances by analyzing the freezing points in cyclohexane and to provide a visual representation of the freezing point depression effect. The theory of this lab is; by using measurements of mass of the unknown substances (solute) in correlation with the mass of the cyclohexane (solvent) and the freezing point constant of the solvent, you could determine the molecular weight of the solute by using the same math involved in deciding the freezing point of the solution/ The theory behind the visual of the FPD effect is that if one was to record the freezing point of a solution and two solutions of the same substances with more solute, one would see a visible drop in freezing point. The equations you needed for this lab were the freezing point formula for organic substances (ΔFp=(m)Kf) and the
These conditions are more suitable for ionic bonds. That is why the sucrose and salicylic acid did not have good results, because they have covalent bonds. There were a few sources of error that could be improved in the experiment. For example, when the substance was poured into the test tubes, some of the compound remained stuck to the weighing paper. If we used a stick resistant material for this step, the whole 1g would be accounted for.
One of the increasingly popular types of gasification is Plasma Gasification. Plasma gasification technology has been shown to be the most effective and environmentally friendly method for solid waste treatment and energy utilisation. It is a non-incineration thermal process that uses extremely high temperatures in a partial oxygen environment to decompose completely the input waste material into very simple molecules. The products of the process are a fuel or gas known as synthesis gas and an inert vitreous material known as slag (Stehlı´k, 2009). Plasma gasification uses an external heat source to gasify the waste, resulting in very little combustion.