But strict separation of powers is neither desirable nor practicable. The government is an organic unity and the legislature and the executive must work in co-operation and collaboration.
One cannot be strictly separate and independent of the other. It is observed in practice that in every state the legislature partakes in the work of the executive and vice versa.
Executive Functions of the Legislature:
(1) In a parliamentary system of government the legislature controls the executive through a vote of no-confidence, interpellation (asking of questions) and adjournment motion.
The life of the executive depends upon the will of the legislature since it continues in office so long as it enjoys the confidence of the majority of members in the legislature. The moment a cabinet loses the confidence of the majority, it is liable to be thrown out of office by a vote of no confidence.
(2) Certain legislatures perform some direct executive functions e.g., the Senate of the United States shares with the President his power of making appointments and treaties.
Legislative Powers of the Executive:
Just as the legislature performs certain executive functions, similarly, the executive enjoys some legislative powers, which may be discussed as follows:
(1) The chief executive head in all parliamentary governments has the power to summon and prorogue both the Houses of the legislature. He may also dissolve the Lower House and order for fresh elections.
(2) The Bills passed by the legislature are submitted to the chief executive head for final approval. A Bill cannot become an Act unless it has been assented to by him. The chief executive, heads enjoy varying degrees of veto in this respect in different countries of the world.
(3) The chief executive head may issue ordinances during the recess of the legislature though the nature and life of ordinances differ from state to state. The ordinance issuing power, enjoyed by the executive, is a direct legislative authority in...