This adapting and renegotiating of rules is continuously required in making and remaking order as society constantly changes and evolves. The government employs advisors with the relevant knowledge and expertise to help initiate change and maintain order, however, as society evolves so does expert opinion. New approaches to the making of social order are now challenging those long established, creating tough choices for the government on how best to create order in contemporary society. This essay will look at the approaches of Buchanan (1963) and Monderman (1982) both of whom have contrasting approaches to creating order through the design of public space. This essay will first look at two different influential theories of social scientists Goffman (1959, 1971, 1972) and Foucault (1972, 1977, 1978) on how social order is made.
In essence, Freud’s theoretical foundation for the psychodynamic approach is referenced as the structural model (Marc F. Kern, 1996-2003). This foundation was understood in three parts of an individual personality, the Id, Ego, and Superego. The three parts affect individual personality through the psychodynamic approaches. Sigmund Freud’s theories for the Id states that the unconscious is this part of the brain that aggression and sexual energies are formed in. However, the thoughts which are formed in the unconscious are governed by the Ego, the conscious part of the brain.
Jung divides the psyche into the ego, the personal unconscious and the collective unconscious. He uses the concept of the symbolism of dream which Freud advanced but he combines it with mythology, religion and philosophy which allows him to theorize a universal unconscious that reveals itself in symbolic form via dreams, mysticism and religion. Carl Jung talks about dreams from the personal unconscious, which help a person to fulfill his individual destiny. Dreams from this level are made up of images that are collected during a person’s lifetime. In addition, Jung maintains that the goal of man should be to become a total whole individual.
Sociology and Anthropology Both sociologists and cultural anthropologists use similar research methods to support their scientific theories. Some examples of their research methods include historical research data, experiments, observation, surveys, interviews and comparative data. Sociologists study human societies and their social interactions in order to gain understanding of social situations and behaviors and to predict what will occur in the future (Tischler, 2007, Chapter 1). Cultural anthropologists research the inner workings and relationships among people within a society to better understand how and why people deal with challenges and live the way they do (Haviland, Prins, Walrath, & McBride, 2008). Sociological Research Methods Sociologists search to find repeating patterns within a society in order to better understand social phenomena, situations and social relations (Tischler, 2007, Chapter 1).
History of Existentialist Theory As long as humankind has been consciously aware of its own existence, there have been existential ponderings. Although the philosophy of existentialism has deep roots within our ancient heritage, it was during the nineteenth century that it started to become a formal system of thought. Its philosophical roots are found in the works of Kierkegaard (1941, 1944) and Nietsche (1954, 1974). Methods of existential therapy have been modeled on the work of Heidegger (1949, 1962, 1966), Husserl (1900, 1962), and the philosophy of Sartre (1939, 1943). From this theoretical background and early clinical work, a myriad of therapies have emerged.
The Self Concept Self can be explained through race, religious beliefs, social status, and etc. One can also explain self through using adjective words such as thoughtful and understanding. There are three core social motives that explain the self in its cognitive, affective, and behavioral manifestations. The motive to understand self underlies the cognitive self concept; self-enhances explains feelings about the self; and the motive to belong accounts for the interplay between self and behavior (Fiske, 2010). This paper will discuss the concept of self and how an individual develops self.
One’s personality, behavior, characteristics, and traits are what makes individual’s unique. Developmental process of personality occurs through life, one’s experiences, one’s environmental conditions, heredity, and one’s behavior has a huge impact on one’s personality. Personality and behavior is hidden in the unconscious minds, and exposed because of unconscious drives. Humanistic and Existential Personalities The essentials for humanistic and existential personality theories come from philosophical bases (Feist & Feist, 2009), explaining the
How much control do we have in shaping our own identity? The purpose of this essay is to give an explanation of identity in a social science context and to show how agency and structure have a part to play in control of our identities. Agency and structure will be explained and the tension between the two will be shown through the studies of Mead, Goffman, and Freud. The essay will finish with a look at how out identities are shaped by occupation, gender and place. What is identity in social scientific terms?
In psychology, idiographic describes the study of the individual, who is seen as an entity, with properties setting him/her apart from other individuals (see idiographic image). Nomothetic is more the study of a cohort of individuals. Here the subject is seen as representing a class or population and their corresponding personality traits and behaviours. The terms idiographic and nomothetic were introduced to American psychology by Gordon Allport in 1937, who borrowed them from the German philosopher Wilhelm Windelband. In sociology, the nomothetic model tries to find independent variables that account for the variations in a given phenomenon (e.g.
Student number 45504121 Ecosystemic Psychology-PYC4808 Assignment 1 Unique Assignment number- 199603 Table of Contents Page 1. Table of Definitions: 3 a) Epistemology, 3 b) Theory, 3 c) Model, 4 d) Technique. 4 References 5 2. 3. Table of Definitions: | Definition | Example | a)Epistemology | Epistemology is the branch of philosophy that is concerned with the origins, nature, limits, and methods of human knowledge and justified belief.