Foundations of Psychology Essay

670 WordsApr 2, 20153 Pages
Foundations Of Psychology The major schools of thought play a major role in the foundation of psychology. These major schools of thought include structuralism, functionalism, psychodynamic perspective, behaviorist perspective, cognitive perspective, and evolutionary perspective. Each of the major schools of thought has different views but they all have similarities in a way. They are all important. I will define each major school of thought and simplify it. Structuralism was one of the two early schools for thought in the nineteenth century. “Structuralism attempted to uncover the basic elements of consciousness through introspection” (Kowalski & Westen, 2011, p. 9). Introspection was a method the Wundt and some of his students used when they were experimenting with different scientific methods. The other school for thought that was major in the nineteenth century was functionalism.” Instead of focusing on the contents of the mind, functionalism emphasized the role—or function—of psychological processes in helping individuals adapt to their environment. A functionalist would not be content to state that the idea of running comes into consciousness in the presence of a bear showing its teeth. From a functionalist perspective, it is no accident that this particular idea enters consciousness when a person sees a bear but not when he sees a flower’ (Kowalski & Westen, 2011, p. 10). “The psychodynamic perspective rests on three key premises. First, people’s actions are determined by the way thoughts, feelings, and wishes are connected in their minds. Second, many of these mental events occur outside of conscious awareness. Third, these mental processes may conflict with one another, leading to compromises among competing motives. Thus, people are unlikely to precisely know the chain of psychological events that leads to their conscious thoughts,

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