Foreign Direct Investment Essay

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Is Foreign Direct Investment necessary for economic development? Discuss in relation to two sectors. Introduction to FDI Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) broadly encompasses any long-term investments by an entity that is not a resident of the host country. Typically, the investment is over a long duration of time and the idea is to make an initial investment and then subsequently keep investing to leverage the host country’s advantages which could be in the form of access to better (and cheaper) resources, access to a consumer market or access to talent specific to the host country - which results in the enhancement of efficiency. This long-term relationship benefits both the investor as well as the host country. The investor benefits in getting higher returns for his investment than he would have gotten for the same investment in his country and the host country can benefit by the increased know how or technology transfer to it’s workers, increased pressure on it’s domestic industry to compete with the foreign entity thus making the industry improve as a whole or by having a demonstration effect on other entities thinking about investing in the host country. 1.1 AN OVERALL VIEW The historical background of FDI in India can be traced back with the establishment of East India Company of Britain. British capital came to India during the colonial era of Britain in India. However, researchers could not portray the complete history of FDI pouring in India due to lack of abundant and authentic data. Before independence major amount of FDI came from the British companies. British companies setup their units in mining sector and in those sectors that suits their own economic and business interest. After Second World War, Japanese companies entered Indian market and enhanced their trade with India, yet U.K. remained the most

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