Virginia DeJohn Anderson, “King Philip’s Herds: Indians, Colonists and the Problem of livestock in Early New England” In this article Ms. Anderson talks about how livestock (mostly swine) played a critical role toward King Philip’s War of 1675-76. How hostilities, settlers free ranging livestock wandered into native villages and affected them and how the Indians responded to theses encroachments. English colonist imported thousands of cattle, swine, sheep, and horses because they considered livestock essential to their survival. But the animals caused problems to subsistence practices, land use, property rights and political authority. Indians did not want to own domestic animals since livestock husbandry did not fit easily with native practices, the adoption of livestock would alter women’s lives by affecting the traditional division of labor since women were mainly responsible of agriculture production.
What the Jamestown Colonist failed to realize is that they when they decided to move to Virginia that the land was already occupied by many Indian tribes. So over the next 80 years the relationship between the Colonist and the Native Americans had a lot of ups and downs. When the Jamestown Colonist first arrived in Virginia in 1607 the Paspahegh Indian tribe immediately attacked them. The English were careful to settle only on uninhabited land and looked forward to trade and cooperation, but naturally the Indians saw the English as invaders and disliked them. In 1607 a fire destroys Jamestown.
There were a lot a deaths and diseases that spread among the neighboring Indian tribes that sent a lot of them to an early grave including Captain Gosnold the Projector of the Enterprise. Planter John Rolfe and Captain John Smith mapped the area and intimidated Indians getting food that kept settlers from starving. This ended the mad scramble for gold as well as forced the men to build defenses and plant Indian corn. The economy of the Virginia Colony depended on farming as the main source of money. Due to the climate the colony wasn’t able to produce other crops necessary for survival.
He found a valley and a camp of Nez Perce Indians who gave him food. His stomach revolted due to the previous lack of food and he fell ill. September 22, 1805 – We arrived at the Nez Perce villages and all fell ill from the food we ate. Our stomachs cannot adjust well thanks to living on such a meager diet for so long. September 26, 1805 – We began canoe making. We have used up a lot of our goods for barter on trading with the natives for food.
At the same time, white settlers were moving into the Crow’s territory. This caused food and game to become scarce, especially since many of the whites shot hundreds of buffalo for sport and then just left the carcasses to rot. Then in 1851 the United States military forced all of the Crow to move onto a small reservation in the same
Also, they would dump their human waste into the water and make it even more contaminated so when the people of Jamestown would drink or use the water it would make them ill and even to the point that they died. Within a couple of years they also faced drought which many people died because of starvation. The colony went to desperate measures by forcing the Indians to trade their grain, the Indians didn’t give up easy though as it says in the document ‘some harshe (harsh) and cruwell (cruel ) dealinge (dealings)by cutting of towe (two) of the salvages (Indians) heads and other extremities.” Another reason why the colonist died in the colony of early Jamestown was because of the skills they had. When the first ship arrived in Jamestown they brought over a total of 110 males in 1607. 47 of the men were gentlemen, back then, a gentlemen was a person of wealth who was not used to working with his hands.
The reservations were not set on the best land; those were given to white Americans. These grounds could not be harvested and due to corruption settlers driving them even further away into smaller reservations constantly invaded them. Continuous struggles continue to cause the Indian’s numbers to dwindle and their culture to almost vanish. The main standard of living as a tribe that has greatly helped them to survive was now being replaced by the individualism of new American ideals. In accordance with the Native Nations website, one example of the terrible conditions the Indians had to live under the U.S government and the reservations took place in May of 1868 when at the Bosque Redondo Reservation two-thousand Indians perished and
Americans have given the Native Americans compensation for the land they took. The past is the past, so nothing we can do will change the injustice, but we’ve still helped them in terms of their living quality. Since as early as 1920, the federal government has worked to give them the chance to fit into our society. They granted all honorably discharged Indians who fought in World War I full citizenship, and later, in 1924, they gave citizenship to all other Indian tribes. In 1934, the government passed legislation for the Johnson-O’Malley Act, giving states money to put Indians in their school systems.
Around the late 1800’s many African slaves came to the new world, Africans became slaves either because of debts or of a religious conflicts. However, slaves were granted certain rights such as education, parenthood, and slaves could eventually work their way out of slavery. In 1492 slavery was legalized in Europe, which lead the people to trade slaves for goods or gold in Africa. Unfortunately later on a technique came upon, it was use to transport slaves to different places which was known as the Middle Passage. The middle passage lead to the death of many slaves, since slaves were being place in ships at the very bottom.
The introduction of the Indian Removal Act saw numerous tribes displaced from their ancestral homes time and time again, and while the rest of America prospered, they were forced onto small plots of land, and not even formally recognised as citizens of their own country. The buffalo which they depended on were slaughtered, causing widespread starvation, and every time they retaliated against this appalling treatment it only served to further reinforce unfair stereotypes which still haunt them to this day. Hopefully, by examining the mistakes of the past, people will avoid repeating them in the