For a Named Example, Evaluate the Causes and Consequences of Coastal Flooding

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Hurricane Sandy hit New York on 29th October 2012. Causes of the hurricane include the water in the Atlantic Ocean was 3 degrees hotter than normal. This is due to climatic change; the extra heat in the water was a major cause of the hurricanes formation. Warm water is vital in the formation; the water helped intensify the storm and enabled it to produce more rain. Another factor includes the rising sea levels; these enabled the storm to be much more damaging storm surge than before. Hurricane Sandy broke record with 13.2 foot storm surge in New York. At least 1 foot of this height was arguably due to sea-level rise. As sea levels are now 1 foot higher than they were a century ago. Personally, I believe that these 2 factors were very important as much of the damage was due to water rather than the 80 mph winds Sandy brought. At the time of Sandy moving North up the East coast. There was a very high-pressure system in the middle of the Atlantic, jet-streams push the hurricane towards the East Coast, hitting New York. People were not expecting this dramatic 90 degree turn; this increased the damage made due to the lack of planning. This was the most shocking fact that Sandy produced, usually when a storm makes it up to the Northern mid-Atlantic latitude, it is always way out to sea, but Sandy did otherwise. This factor was ultimately the one which caused all the damage and devastation for the habitants of N.Y if it wasn’t for the high pressure, the hurricane would have carried North rather than the quick turn forcing Sandy onto landfall. The geography of N.Y also made it more susceptible to storm surges. The long and narrow shape of the Long Island Sound helped to channel the waves in the 12 foot storm surge, making it even bigger. Additionally, areas such as Battery Park were built from landfill and therefore are low-lying areas and also flat. This meant that the

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