Chemistry: Molarity and Stoichiometry Directions: Using the definition of molarity, the given balanced equations, and stoichiometry, solve the following problems. Please submit your work via the link provided. 1. Calcium hydroxide (“slaked lime”) and sulfuric acid react to produce calcium sulfate and water according to the following balanced equation: Ca(OH)2(aq) + H2SO4(aq) ⋄ CaSO4(s) + 2 H2O(l) a. How many liters of 0.2 M calcium hydroxide do you need in order to have 6.0 moles of calcium hydroxide?
CuSO4 4. What is the molar mass for anhydrous (without water) copper(II) sulfate? 159.62 g/mol Result: Observation: Some gray white substances precipitated from the water in the crucible. Data: * Mass of purified crucible and lid 30.59g * Mass of crucible and lid and hydrate 31.57g * Mass of hydrate alone 31.57g- 30.59g = .98g * Mass of crucible and lid and dehydrate 31.11g * Mass of dehydrate alone .52g This lab shows that hydrates are made up of crystal solids and water,
Give an example of each of the following solutes: a. Ions/electrolytes sodium b. Colloids proteins c. Nonelectrolytes glucose 6. List the major extracellular and intracellular cations and anions a. Extracellular cations: sodium, potassium, calcium, & magnesium anions: bicarbonate, sulfate, phosphates, & chloride b. Intracellular cations: sodium, potassium, & magnesium anions: bicarbonate, sulfate, phosphates, & chloride 7. Within a fluid compartment, the total number of positive charges must be equal to the total number of negative charges. 8. Name four of the seven functions given for electrolytes: a. secondary active transport b. muscle contraction c. cofactors for enzymes d. action potentials 9.
Experiment: Acids and Bases of Household Products Problem: Are these household products acids, bases or neutrals? Information Gathered: Acids have a high number of hydrogen ions but a low number of hydroxide ions. The pH of an acid range from 0 to 6.9 on the pH scale. Neutrals have an equal number of hydrogen and hydroxide ions. The pH of a neutral is 7.
The pH of this solution measured with the pH meter is equivalent to the pKa of the solution. This was termed ‘Qualitative pKa’. For the quantitative aspect, the absorbance of the acid solution, AHIn and that of the absorbance of the base solution, AIn- were measured via the visible spectrophotometer. Afterwards, small amounts of the acid and base solutions were added to the solution 3 to obtain four other pH values above and below the ‘qualitative pKa’ and their respective absorbance values were measured. Using the equation below, the various pKa values were calculated.
It is important for an IV solution to have salts in it so the water and solute can be equal to create an isotonic environment. If there wasn’t, there would either be a hypotonic causing the cell to burst, or there would be hypertonic causing the cell to shrink. We created models of living cells by using dialysis tubing. The dialysis tube represented the cell membrane to act as selectively permeable to water and some solutes. We observed different solutes (NaCl, Ovalbumin, Glucose, Sucrose, and Water) in the dialysis tubing.
The more CO2 produced over this time, the higher the rate of reaction. In this equation, there are 3 possible independent variables: a) changing the size of the marble chips (e.g. large, small, powdered) whilst keeping the mass the same, b) changing the mass of the marble chips whilst keeping the size the same (e.g. all powdered), or c) changing the concentration of the hydrochloric acid. In equation 2, the hydrogen is measured by the loss of mass.
What is the weight percent of each element in ammonium sulfate? C. Empirical and Molecular Formulas 1. Empirical Formula - shows the number of atoms in the smallest possible ratio a. may be calculated from percent composition data b. may or may not show the true number of atoms of each kind in the molecule 2. Molecular Formula - shows the true
Electrolytes include sodium, chloride, potassium and calcium and when dissolved in water or another substance, will separate or split into ions and then able to conduct an electric current. (Harris, P., Nagy,S. & Vardaxis, N. 2008). 3. Body fluids are maintained at a constant level by several homeostatic mechanisms.
The Solubility of Potassium Nitrate Introduction The purpose of this experiment was to observe how temperature affected the solubility of solid potassium nitrate that was put in different solvents. The temperature was not the other thing that was being varied to observe the solubility of potassium nitrate, the amount solute was also varied and the kinds of solvents in this experiment were varied. The nature of each solvent changes due to the common ion effect which is basically means that the concentration of a soluble salt is reduced if there is a common ion with that salt. Also potassium nitrate solubility in basic and acidic places was also determined, to see if it affected the temperature. The moles of KNO3 s/ Kg solvent were needed to calculate the correct molal concentration.