The beginning of psychoanalysis can begin with dream analyst there are a variety of components with pyschoanyalis including dream anyalsis. The development of pyschayalsis are Theories of the Unconscious Mind Early in the eighteenth century, the German philosopher and mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz (1646–1716) developed an idea he called monadology. Early Ideas About Psychopathology Early Ideas About Psychopathology The Babylonians believed that the cause of mental illness was possession by demons, a condition they treated humanely with a combination of magic and prayer. Ancient Hebrew cultures regarded mental illness as punishment for sin and relied on magic and prayer to cure it. Greek philosophers— notably Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle—argued that mental illness arose from disordered
thought processes. More humane treatments Juan Luis Vives (1492–1540), a Spanish scholar, was among the first to urge that mentally disturbed persons be treated sensitively and humanely Hypnosis is another component with psychoanalysis Hypnosis Interest in the phenomenon of hypnosis also helped foster the growing focus on psychic causes of mental illness. The application of hypnosis to the treatment of emotional disturbances originated in a mysterious, murky force called “animal magnetism,” introduced by Franz Anton Mesmer (1734–1815), a Viennese physician who was part scientist, part showman. The Influence of Charles Darwin, Darwin insisted that humans were driven by the biological forces of love and hunger, which he believed were the foundation of all behavior. There was Additional Influences During Freud’s university training he was exposed to the idea of mechanism, as represented by the physiologists, including Helmholtz, who had been students of Johannes Müller (see Chapter 3). They had united to take the position that there are no forces active within the organism other than the common physical and...