An important part of personality theories is to understand whether the theories are deterministic or if there is free will within the theory. The awareness of self, such as the conscious or unconscious motives for behavior is also part of the theories of personality. Psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic social theory have many factors which make each theory unique. Psychoanalysis Psychoanalysis was developed by Sigmund Freud. Sigmund Freud’s development of psychoanalysis is the most famous of the personality theories.
I chose the movie, A Clockwork Orange, because I have seen it many times before and knew that it had plenty of psychological themes presented throughout its plot. The main concept was taking away the ability or right to make one's own decisions (both positive and negative) and the dehumanization that follows such behavior. This is basically saying that it is better to be one's self with the just rights to chose what should or should not be done versus conforming to others ideas of how behavior should be. From this movie, I want to discuss social cognition, self-concept, external locus of control, attitudes and attitude formation, culture and behavior, social dominance, conformity, obedience, indoctrination, group forming, aggression, sexuality, communication, and politics. Many of the themes overlap each other with the same examples because they correspond to some of the same things.
This is the contradicting of Jung. Jung has analysis himself to experience the unconscious through his dreams and fantasia Jung believe that he was strong enough to make dangerous journey and come back to talk about it. His goal was to understand the unconscious from the purpose viewpoint of scientist. Ellis thoughts are that society is more disturbs and it more inclusive and exact “people disturb themselves by thing that have happen to them. And by the view, feelings, and actions” (p16) Horney’s (1950) also Adler writes that our Emotional reactions and lifestyle are associated with our basic beliefs and are therefore cognitively created.
Although the ego and superego operates on all three levels of awareness; conscious, preconscious, and unconscious- the id is the entirely unconscious, expressing its urges at a conscious level through the ego. (Parrott III, 2nd edition, 2011) Freud also studied areas of repression and resistance, unconsciousness, dreams, sexuality, the Oedipus complex, and sexual maladjustment, and hysteria. Freud believed that some mental disorders like hysteria were based on sexual manner. Sigmund Freud’s revolutionary ideas have set the standard for modern psychoanalysis. Freud’s Psychoanalysis therapy has both devoted admirers and strong critics.
Aaron Linkenhoker Psychology 101 28 Jan. 2011 Freud vs. Skinner B. F. Skinner and Sigmund Freud were both revolutionary psychologists, although they had completely different ideas and approaches to the science. Skinner’s approach involved the behavioral perspective while Freud’s was the psychodynamic perspective. The two perspectives are completely different in the way they approach psychology. Although Ivan Pavlov was the founder of behaviorism, Skinner is considered the “greatest modern psychologist”. Skinner expanded on the principles that Pavlov first made noticed.
Psychoanalysis and Self Psychology Although Heinz Kohut started out with classical psychoanalysis and followed the theory laid out by Freud himself, it is interesting to see how Kohut’s ideas evolved with time, as they were affected by his own clinical experiences. As he began to develop his own theories about people, Kohut started to separate from the classic view until he completely abandoned it and created self psychology. And, although I appreciate the importance of Freud’s work and feel that his contributions to the field of psychology are immense, there is something about Kohut’s work that resonates with me much more than classical psychoanalytical theory. Freud saw human nature as riddled with conflict and driven by instincts (Freud, 1923). He viewed childhood as dominated by conflictual sexuality and personality as an intricate net of impulses and defenses (Mitchell & Black, 1995).
Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Theory Assignment Cogitative Behavioural Therapy, also referred to as CBT, has its roots in the work of early behaviourist such as Ivan Pavlov, Burrhus Frederic Skinner & Hans Eysenck & the cognitive therapy movement inspired by Albert Ellis & Aaron Beck. Behaviour Therapy came into being due to changing views about Freud’s psychodynamic approach, which had dominated scientific beliefs since its inception during the early 1900’s. Behavioural Therapy was used extensively throughout the 1950’s & 1960’s & was considered very successful, especially when used with client’s who had anxiety issues or obsessive-compulsive disorders. However during the 1970’s some therapists were becoming frustrated with traditional Behavioural Therapy as it tended to focus on correcting behaviours without focussing on how thoughts & emotions impacted on a person & prevented behavioural change taking place. Ellis, whose work was influenced by Alfred Adler & behaviourists John Dollard & Joseph Wolpe, began developing what is now known as Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT).
Freud came to realise that transference provided him with the most powerful to the effect of bringing insight and facilitate the working through (Freud 1914). Of particular importance was the phenomenon he described as transference neurosis, which meant that at a point in therapy, the transference became so strong that the significant problems of the client would manifest themselves in the relationship with the therapist. (Freud 1914) Later combinations, such as Jung or Storolow or even Melanie Klein, and more recently authors like Kohut made readjustments and redefinitions to the concept, introducing important ideas like the one of intersubjectivity and self psychology. For example, Kohut’s work has developed into the study of selfobject experiences, that nourish the self and self-esteem. He understood the self from an empathic standpoint as our sense of being an independent centre of initiative and perception.
Sigmund Freud was one of the most powerful intellectuals of his time. He was the tower of strength in which psychoanalysis was created, with his brilliant thoughts and researches he cultivated theories and teachings that is the groundwork for several school of thoughts for psychology. Freud’s theoretical positions incorporate the ideas of repression, the unconscious, and the infantile sexuality. These three groups offered an explanation for the formation of the mind and also suggestions for the perceptive of psychological development of an individual. According to the author, “Freud’s psychoanalytic theory of personality, the unconscious mind is a reservoir of feelings, thoughts, urges, and memories that outside of our conscious awareness most of the contents of the unconscious are unacceptable or unpleasant, such as feelings of pain, anxiety, or conflict”.
Although Freud is credited with the start of this theory, there were other psychotherapists who used and expanded this theory; the most popular were Carl Jung and Alfred Adler. Each of these theorists believed that the mind is the greatest contributor to personality, but their focus was slightly different. Sigmund Freud Sigmund Freud was an Austrian neurologist who established the psychoanalytic approach by creating dialogue between the patient and psychoanalyst. This dialogue allowed the thought process of the patient to be studied. The findings helped Freud create his theory that behavior was greatly influenced by the unconscious mind.