The survey purpose must be explained in detail to the subjects, especially if it is a lab experiment. The nature of the study cannot be misrepresented. Intrusive personal information should not be solicited. Specific reasons should been given if it is necessary and it should be categorized as highly sensitive. The data collection method should not violate the self-respect or self-esteem of the participants.
All humanistic studies are conducted unscientifically. This is a strength of this is that they are less artificial in the way they conduct their studies, this in turn makes the tests more ecologically valid. However a weakness of this is that they have no objective results and they are unable to control variables. This makes causality harder to establish and means psychologists are unable to predict what is going to happen. The humanistic approach represents the ‘healthy half of psychology’ and suggests that we are all with good intentions.
t identifies two groups that are similar and comparisons are made- it seeks to discover cause and effect, avoids artificiality, can be used to study past events, no ethical problems . If studying labelling in schools which is a social process of teachers attaching positive or negative labels to students and students also doing this to teachers, this is best understood in the context of social interaction in the classroom. This would eliminate lab experimentation and would be favoured by interactionists using a field experiment approach. Main ideas concepts Some researchers have used laboratory experiments-Harvey and Stains, they looked at whether teachers had preconceived ideas about pupils of different social classes. The study indicated labelling goes on and that the labels are used to pre-judge pupils potential.
Strength / Weakness - research that is in the form of naturally occurring phenomena (Roberts and Lamb) has good ecological validity but is not scientific or replicable as variables were not highly controlled and because it is not artificial. It would also be unethical to test eye witness testimony when a real sensitive subject is being discussed. Strength / Weakness - the results could be due to a number of factors such as: young people may be more used to memory tests or older adults have poorer health leading to memory impairment. Weakness - the research findings are inconclusive. Weakness - the factors given by researchers, such as the ones stated, are only assumptions with no scientific evidence.
- Also, you cannot assume deindividuation automatically leads to aggression e.g. being anonymous in a peace rally or pilgrimage. Also Nurses uniform - This study is unethical – people were distressed and believed that they could not leave - However mundane realism is an issue. They knew it was not a real prison. Zimbardo only should have acted as the experimenter.
What we don’t know before Milgrams experiment’s is just how powerful the tendency is. And having been enlightened about our extreme readiness to obey authorities, we can try to take steps to guard ourselves against unwelcome or reprehensible command’(p.73)”’. This just shows that people don’t realize the effect of obedience from people from a higher authority. With Milgrams experiment there were many problems, consisting of the biases parts like the environment. The laboratory was an unfamiliar environment for the participants, and they may have felt embarrassed.
When conducted honestly and thoroughly, the scientific method can and has provided valuable information about the world and the world’s people (Jackson, 2009). Though some people rely on other methods for gaining knowledge, scientists only accept knowledge gained through science to arrive at plausible truths (Jackson, 2009). Due in part to human error and the tendency of human nature to succumb to temptations to bias research, the results of the scientific method should be viewed with skepticism (Garzon, n.d.). The scientific method of seeking knowledge and finding truth must stay within the limits of scientific ability and allow for human fragility in order to be effective (Slick, 2012). References Garzon, F. (n.d.).
Society tends to trust scientists because they are the ones who usually want to better mankind, but if scientists conducted their experiments the way Milgrim did, people would not trust them, they would not want to be a part of them and it would break the general belief when testing on an actual person to not be treated as a subject but as a human being. We want scientists to actually care about our safety and wellbeing during their experiments. Clearly Milgrim did not, “The laughter seemed entirely out of place, even bizarre. Full blown uncontrollable seizures were observed for 3 subjects. On one occasion we observed a seizure so violently convulsive that it was necessary to call a halt to the experiment…” (375) It seems like a scientist who cared about the well-being of these people would actually call a stop before they started violently having a seizure, but to Milgrim it was as if he was testing his experiment on
Instead, it is involved on supernatural entities which cannot be explained by science. Science and Religion do not have conflict with one another because they express human understanding in their own different ways. There is no conflict because that would only create controversy in the church and in a science
Conclusion - Age has an effect on the accuracy of eyewitness testimony. *Evaluation Methodological strengths -This was a lab experiment and this means there was a high control of variables. This is a good thing as it means it is reliable and if replicated, similar results will be obtained. Methodological weaknesses -This study lacks external validity as it is artificial and will not arouse the participants in the same way that they would have been if they were faced with the same situation in real life. Therefore the finding cannot be used as and indication of what may happen in reality.