(Kelly, M. and McGowan, J., 2012)(p.19 & 21). Fiscal policy is more effective in promoting economic growth, by increasing government spending or reducing taxes. Fiscal policy in economic has reflected both political and economic realities. Monetary policy has the ability to slow down the economy in order to promote full employment and inflation. The monetary policy to economic is to increase the amount of money, by cutting interest rates.
Monetary Policy Aaron Ashburn MMPBL/501 Feb-21, 2011 Dr. George Sharghi Introduction There is a consensus among analysts regarding the ability of economist’s to accurately forecast inflation, and consequently it appears that the relationship between real economic activity and inflation is ambiguous. It is the Fed's job to do what it can to reduce unemployment in order for the economy to sustain and to make sure that inflation returns to a level more consistent with its mandate. The central focus of U.S. monetary policy is price stability. Thanks to its control of money markets and banks, the Fed influences interest rates, asset prices, and credit flows throughout the financial system. To help attain inflation goals the Federal
Keynesian Theory Maynard’s theory is a combination of monetary policy of the central bank and the fiscal policy of the government. He believed that both policies, working in conjunction of each other, will help stimulate the economy during recessions (www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keynesian_economics). For instance, if the central bank reduced the interest rate of the loans to commercial banks, the government in return signals the commercial banks to follow suit in reducing their interest rate. The government then begins to invest in the infrastructure, thus outputting income into the economy. This action then helps to create business opportunities, employments, and demands thus resulting in reversion of the initial imbalance (www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keynesian_economics).
The business cycle is a series of cycles that define the economies and a business’s stages of expansion and contraction. The first stage of the business cycle is the Boom stage, this is where there is high level of customers spending, there are high levels of business confidence, and an increase of profits & investment. Unemployment is also low as the business creates jobs. The next stage is the Recession stage, this is where the high levels of customer spending start to decrease and business confidence means that lower profits and the business will have to start cutting back on investments which starts to increase unemployment as the business is forced to cut back on resources. The next stage is Depression, this is where there is a lengthy period of declining Gross Domestic Product (GDP) – this is where there is little to no customer spending (there is some increase in the rise of employment).
The second on is recession which is the economy slowing down, then the there one is slump this is when the economy hits rock bottom. Then the fourth one is recovery this is when the economy starts to expand again. Throughout the business cycle there are many alterations in the economic activities. There are years that we would see the economy at a strong point and there are years that the economy is slow and
It helps me predict the effects of the business cycle (Seasons or GDP when income levels rise or fall) on my sales. Currently we are in a slowed economy. Therefore, we have more unemployment or people watching their money more carefully and are more interested in price shopping. g. You obtain this information the % change in quantity demanded divided by the % change in the consumer’s income. Necessity will drive the income demand first and then as necessities are met and money increases, then luxury item demands will begin to increase.
A primary use of the PPI is to deflate revenue streams in order to measure real growth in output. A primary use of the CPI is to adjust income and expenditure streams for changes in the cost of living. The different uses because definitional differences that can be categorized into two critical areas: the composition of the set of commodities and services they include and the types of prices collected for these
Fiscal Policy captures the changes in taxes and government spending. In the United States, the president, and Congress make these decisions. Because of its ability to affect the total amount of output produced (GDP), Fiscal policy is an important tool for managing the economy. Its ability to affect the total amount of output produced raising the demand for goods and services is the first impact of a fiscal expansion and this increased demand leads to increases in output and prices. The level to which higher demand increases output and prices depends on the state of the business cycle.
Therefore, this means that the average Bahraini disposable income will significantly increase, hence, they will increase spending on goods and services. An increase in salaries is therefore a direct signal interpreted by businesses to consider in planning their business offerings. A salary increase might also affect the banking sector, as savings may increase, resulting in extra liquidity with the banks, which is then channeled back through consumer loans or financing facilities for the business sector. Indirect signals are causal in terms of not being precisely valid and reliable. An economist will create a conclusion based on a certain observation that has a relation to the other.
Exploring the Keynesian framework, Harrod-Dommar model points out some dynamics of growth. For instance, to determine equilibrium growth rate in the economy, the balance between supply and demand for a country’s output should be maintained. On supply side, saving is a function of the level of GDP. Investment is an important component of the demand for the output of an economy as well as the increase in capital stock. Therefore, the equilibrium rate of growth is given by matching proportionate change in output with the ratio of savings-output to that of capital-output.