Examine the extent to which social divisions are socially constructed. Use either gender or ethnicity to construct and illustrate your argument. Society is constructed through several social divisions, one of these being divisions being gender. Gender can be defined as a ‘socially determined difference based upon the biological differences between the sexes’ (Marsh et al, 2006: 216). Fulcher & Scott (2011) believe gender to examine the differences between men and women in relation to feeling, thinking and behaving.
122 As a process, gender creates the social differences that define “woman” and “man.” In social interaction throughout their lives, individuals learn what is expected, see what is expected, act and react in expected ways, and thus simultaneously construct and maintain the gender order pg. 123 As part of a stratification system, gender ranks men above women of the same race and class pg. 123 The dominant categories are the hegemonic ideals, taken so for granted as the way things should be that white is not ordinarily thought of as race, middle class or men as a gender. The characteristics of these categories define the Other as that which lacks the valuable qualities the dominants exhibit. Pg.
Liberation is seen to be achieved through raising women’s consciousness of subjugation. Feminists believe that women have accepted inferiority to men subconsciously, and thus need to realise this before becoming liberated. Millet argues that women are in a “power-structured relationship…whereby one group of persons is controlled by another”, thus suggesting that feminists believe that in our current society men control women. Although there is controversy between feminists as to the extent of advancing a woman’s role within society, as first-wave feminists demand that women should enjoy the same legal and political rights as men, whilst second-wave feminists have greater focus on the personal side of society and call for complete social revolution. Whilst this presents a clear divide within the doctrine, it
They hold the belief that power lies with men instead of the economy and the structure of society is so men are able to maintain their power. Along with having these beliefs, feminists also believe women are being suppressed in society. One area feminists hold strong views over is the family. They believe that society is patriarchal. Linda N. (undated) provides a definition as men holding the position of power and the head of the family unit.
If one is more passive to the certain ideology the structure that is already set up will not be disturbed. Gender role attitudes are generally conceived as opinions and beliefs about the ways that family and work roles do and should differ based on sex. The gender role ideology leads to the social structure that masks what the men are able to do and or get a way with. It is a form of the domination that is set for men over women. There are many ways to reveal the masks over people's eyes.
Sexism is defined in our textbook as any attitude, action, or institutional structure that subordinates a person because of his or her sex. What this is basically saying is that someone who is sexist will think differently and act negatively towards the opposite sex. Sometimes an individual can be sexist towards their own sex. Most western societies have minimal sexism and more racial hostilities. In other parts of the world sexism is more prominent because males have dominant roles over women and therefore look down upon them.
Liberal feminists are concerned with the human and civil rights and freedoms of the individual; they believe all human beings should have equal rights. Reformism is the idea that progress towards equal rights can be achieve by gradual reforms in society without the need for a revolution. Liberal feminists believe women can achieve gender equality by arguing that laws and policies against sex discrimination in employment and education can secure equal opportunities for women. To add they campaign for cultural change, traditional prejudices and stereotypes about gender differences are a barrier to equality. They reject the idea that biological differences make women less competent than men or men are biologically less emotional or nurturing than women.
Masculinity and femininity differ vastly in a society due to social construction, actions of men and women, and the social norms in a society and so on. Behaviour is a very important role as it defines people. The behaviour of men and women can sometimes not be acceptable as it can be obscene and vulgar to the public, though this
Ignorance What causes cross-cultural conflicts? In the articles “Sex and Gender” by William Thompson and Joseph Hickey, “Sex, Lies, and Conversation” by Deborah Tannen, and “Identity in Transformation” by Yasmin Ahmed, each will explore the many obstacles people face in their lives and demonstrate how clashes among different cultures are caused by assumptions manifested from expectations. In “Sex and Gender,” William Thompson and Joseph Hickey explain the differences between sex and gender. Most altercations come from the differences in terms of sex and gender that aren’t clear to others, ”Sex is based on biological and physical differences between females and males; gender refers to a cultural understanding of what constitutes masculinity and femininity in a society” (285). Sex is established by genetics whereas gender is shaped by ones particular society at particular times.
Reasons for the gender differences in the prevalence of depression and other disorders I favor the socio- cultural level of analysis when explaining gender differences in the prevalence of depression and other disorders primarily because I see societies’ way of perceiving one’s gender as a cultural matter in the first place. Gender, as oppose to Sex, is closely related to, but isn’t defined by biological or physiological factors but by socially constructed roles and behaviors. Therefore it seems logical to me that psychological disorders, as well as the differing symptoms they carry between men and women will have more to do with one’s culture and society and its way of attributing roles according to gender. When going over possible cognitive explanations of prevalence of depression among women (such as their tendency to ruminate more than men do), it seems that the roots of these explanations still originate in gender roles and expectations. Differences in cognition between men and women are highly influenced by their roles in the society and culture they belong to.