Do you agree with the view that the main reason for Henry’s failure to obtain the annulment of his marriage in the years 1525-29 was the determined opposition of Catherine of Aragon? There were many factors contributing to Henry’s annulment plans failing. On one hand it was said to be Catherine of Aragon’s determination and persistence to prove her marriage valid. Others say it was Henry’s own weak argument and brutish front that caused his plans to fail. Source 4 states it was Henry’s weak case and argument that caused him to fail to obtain his annulment, ‘Wolsey worried about Henry’s reliance on biblical arguments’.
Another thing that the Church was often criticized for was the lack of separation between Church and State. In all matters, whether they be religious or political, the Church, mainly the Pope, was the ultimate authority. The Protestants also had a problem with the idea of transubstantiation, or the belief that the bread and wine served at mass are literally the flesh and blood of Christ. The use of Latin in mass was also frowned upon, because no one could understand what the priest was saying. Clerical celibacy yet another thing that the Protestants didn’t like, and because of this, both Luther and Calvin were wedded.
I many ways, the views in his book represent Renaissance thought. One of the two key hallmarks of the Renaissance, hostility towards the Middle Ages, is prominent in The Prince. Both the Renaissance and The Prince promote deception to create a desired image. Patronization of the arts is also a common theme. When Europe finally emerged out of the Middle Ages and into the Renaissance, Europeans despised everything about the Middle Ages.
Paradise Lost: Allegories of Satan to Milton Paradise Lost, thought to be the most preeminent epic in English literature, is shrouded in arguments trying to divulge the poem’s true hero. Satan is controversially conveyed as the Byronic epic protagonist, whereas God is portrayed as an almighty tyrant. The depiction of these obvious moral ambiguities brings about apparent disapproval and criticism from other authors. However, the general thesis of the ten-book epic, as defined by Milton in Book I, is to “justify the ways of God to men” and to make clear the conflict between God's eternal foresight and free will (1 Milton). The probable cause for the sympathetic interpretation of Satan is thought to have formulated from real experiences.
Francois’ Candide, bashed the Christian power among many other things and was seen as a major contributor to the idealists of the Enlightenment. Voltaire was able to utilize Candide to demonstrate the most prominent issues of the Enlightenment period such as the hubris of nobility, how optimism and rationality is able to lessen the evils rendered by humans and criticize the revolution itself simultaneously. Even though the symbol of optimism is a key focus of satire in Candide, Voltaire did make sure that he pointed out the flaws of so called “Nobility” and its need of change in the new Enlightenment age. Voltaire ridiculed the nobles, along with their beliefs, showing readers that the previous way of nobility was arrogant and showed how change of this thought was important in the enlightenment period. Voltaire displayed this idea primarily through two main characters in Candide; the first was with Don Fernando and second was with Cunegund and her family.
Shakespeare’s revenge tragedy Hamlet, composed at the turn of the seventeenth century, is one of the best known and most quoted works of its time. Set in the Kingdom of Denmark, this piece is thematically concerned with the dramatic ideals of confrontation and resolution. Audiences throughout time have been exposed to the underlying themes of confrontation and resolution exercised by the tragic hero Hamlet himself, to reveal the dramatics of self-analysis. As modern audiences we endure this portrayed to the extent of frustration, mirroring the catharsis effect felt by Elizabethan audiences, as Hamlet questions his inner self, confronting his cowardice with divinely purpose on multiple occasions throughout the play. Hamlet questions whether to take action in avenging his father’s death or to commit suicide in his fourth soliloquy, located in the rising action of the dramatic structure of the play, seen particularly in the lines “puzzles the will/ And makes us rather bear those ills we have/ Than fly to others that we know not of?” Here, Shakespeare foreshadows the recurring theme of Hamlet’s inaction towards avenging his father’s death and uses rhetorical questions to aid in his self-analysis.
The Corruptible Nature of Power Shakespeare, a world-renowned author, actor and poet is known as ‘the greatest dramatist of all time’- (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2014), basing his work around the operation of power, gender and class in society. Tragedy tends to be a forefront of his work, caused by characters dishonest ambitions. Othello, one of Shakespeare’s many plays, incorporates the exploitation of power and the ‘corruptible nature of man’- (Alley, M, 2010). Human history has shown that many leaders who have manipulated their power in order to conquer are unable to handle the corruptibility of power leading to the tarnishing of their moral foundation. Iago, the perpetrator in the play, misuses his position and power to satisfy his own needs, leading to the imbalance of society and his own demise.
However, the film’s 20th century context of capitalist greed and mass industrialisation shifts the criticism to the pursuit of commercial dominance and not god like power. Composed during the Industrial Revolution and the enlightenment period, Shelley symbolises the Romantic Movement as she forebodes her enlightened society of playing God. Her warning is shown through the character of Victor, whose pompous diction “many excellent natures would owe their being to me” represents a society focused on reanimation. Shelley questions the morality of this society through the pursuit of god like reanimation and through religiously and morally condemned methods of using dead body parts as materials. Through Victor’s retrospection to Robert Walton, “lost all soul or sensation but for this one pursuit”, with juxtaposition of “all” and “one” emphasis of Victor’s obsession to conquer death is made; similar to scientists of Shelly’s time such as Erasmus Darwin.
Romantic literature originated in Europe the middle of the 18th century. It was an uprising against the aristocratic, social and political norms and as a rebuttal against the uncreative (science) and a justification of nature in art and literature. Romantic literature allowed society the chance to feel emotions. This permitted society the feelings of consternation, terror, and love while reading for the first time of uncultivated nature. In 1764 Horace Walpole combined horror and romance in his novel The Castle of Ortranto.
He was inexperienced in government and also he thought God had granted him the right to rule and autocracy was the only way. He failed to make reforms and political concessions. He also failed to take extensive ec onomic and political inequalities in Russian society and to make reforms to modernise Russia. One of the main reasons he was the least successful is his decision to take over the army and leave Rasputin and Alexander in Charge. Furthermore WWI exposed his weaknesses further and provided the main reason for his downfall.