From the 1450s to the 1750s, powerful empires including the Spanish maritime empire and the Russian empire rose. With these powerful empires also rose systems of forced labor. The Spanish empire grew to include the Americas, and the Russian Empire took control of territory lost to the Mongols prior to the 1750s. Both the Spanish settlers in the New World and the Russian Nobility needed labor for commercial purposes, but the encomienda system gave the settlers the right to demand labor from natives, whereas Russian serfdom were comprised of peasants who fell into debt and were forced to become laborers to the large estates owned by nobles to repay their debt. The intentions of both the encomienda system and system of Russian serfdom were the same, however, they differed in the foundation and functionality.
“One third of a country’s population cannot be eliminated over a period of some two and a half years without considerable dislocation to its economy and its social structure”[i] The Black Death brought about great change in Europe’s economy, society, and culture over many decades and even generations. Did the Black Death cause the Peasants’ Revolt in 1381? Did the plague contribute to the moral disintegration of European society? What imprints did it leave on European art and on the church at this time in history and beyond? In outlining the effects on economy we must look back before the arrival of the Black Death.
Since the serf population had gotten ridiculously low, plantation owners were forced to start paying workers to tend the farms. (Gottfreid, pg. 55) The same effect was applied to factories, and the wages rose in attempt to get more workers. The poor were moving into deserted houses, and many began to live better. On farms that had become vacant, peasants took ownership and started making more money.
The first crusade by Western European feudal patrician knights had established the short-time kingdom, Jerusalem, which only lasted for eighty-eight years, but the Crusades brought severe disaster to the Mediterranean countries' people including Jews, Eastern Christians and Muslims. Several major military activities caused hundreds of thousands of the crusaders' death that was a great loss for the Western Europe people. Nevertheless, the Vatican and feudal lord had made a lot of wealth, which made the eastern Islamic world and the western Christian world mutually opposite more serious. On the other hand, Europe fell in the dark ages due to the destruction of the western Roman Empire. The Crusades brought back a lot of Oriental progressive civilization, which caused a lot of serfs to remove the relations of dependence, becoming freemen.
Summary Preface and Numbering: “How Man? How Many?” Chapter 8 Death is not just a word that defines the extinction of life. Drew Gilpin Faust not only describes death in "This Republic of Suffering" but the magnitude in which death occurred during the Civil War era. She gives the meaning of death a whole new meaning in that it is something that we all do, just differently from one generation to the next. From 1861 to 1865, approximately 620,000 soldiers' lives were cut short, not to mention the 50,000 civilian lives that were also claimed.
The Effects of the Black Death The bubonic plague of the fourteenth century caused not only pain and death, but also the formation of new ideas to help Europe after the economic slump they had been in for decades. The plague, which started in Asia, spread throughout all of Europe killing a third of the European population. No one was safe from the pestilence; clergy and nobles died along with the peasants and scum of every infected area. This sickness, that was spread so easily, managed to leave complete wreckage in its path. John Kelly writes about how the Black Death changed everyone’s lifestyle, changing Europe politically, economically, and socially.
Both scientists state that the epidemic “spread throughout the continent far faster than any modern plague” and that the plague was in fact “a viral hemorrhagic fever, similar to Ebola.” (A.W, 3). The devastating effects from the plague led the high death rates among the citizens of Europe. The Black Death is “estimated to have killed 30–60% of Europe's total population”. In total, the plague reduced the world population from an estimated “450 million down to 350–375 million” (Alchon, 21) in the 14th century. Aside from the Plague deaths, there was also a decline in the birth rate.
The plague germs were carried by fleas which lived as parasites on rats. Although it had first appeared in Britain in 1348, the islands were never totally free of plague, but it was like an unpleasant possibility that people just learned to live with while they got on with their business. This time it was different. In 1663 plague ravaged Holland. Charles II forbade any trade with the Dutch, partly out of wise concern, and partly because his realm was
In fact between 1780 and 1980 sixty acres of wetland were destroyed every hour (ODW). Ignoring the importance of wetlands has lead to half of the wetlands in the entire United States being drained or filled. Ohio has had 90% of its original wetlands destroyed; this is only trumped by California in largest percent of wetland destroyed. Wetlands are a valuable resource in our ecosystem that seems to receive little discussion with most environmentalists. A piece of land is determined to be a wetland by three characteristic.
Enclosure Prior to the 18th century, agriculture had been much the same across Europe since the Middle Ages. The open field system was essentially feudal, with each farmer subsistence-cropping strips of land in one of three or four large fields held in common and splitting up the products likewise. Beginning as early as the 12th century, some of the common fields in Britain were enclosed into individually owned fields, and the process rapidly accelerated in the 15th and 16th centuries. This led to farmers losing their land and their grazing rights and left many unemployed. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the practice of enclosure was denounced by the Church, and legislation was drawn up against it; but the developments in agricultural mechanization during the 18th century required large, enclosed fields so as to be workable.