When CO2 is higher, pH is lower or acidic. When pH is acidic, hemoglobin is released to tissues that need oxygen. The relationship between oxygen afﬁnity and pH Compare the biochemical structure of hemoglobin to myoglobin The molecular difference between normal and sickle forms of hemoglobin The difference between normal and sickle red blood cells at the cellular level How the diseased cells are different from normal red blood cells in their capacity to carry oxygen A normal RBC is round and concave shaped that easily moves through the bloodstream. A sickle hemoglobin releasing oxygen sticks together, forms ﬁber formations that causes the sickle appearance. This decreases the capacity to carry oxygen and also by not moving through smaller circulation easily causes blockages.
There are two types of respiration: Aerobic (using oxygen) and Anaerobic (no oxygen). Aerobic respiration produces carbon dioxide and water and releases energy. The equation is: C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H20 + Energy ATP A cell cannot get its energy directly from glucose, so during respiration the energy released from the breakdown of glucose is used to make ATP (adenosine triphosphate). ATP is made from the nucleotide base adenine, combined with a ribose sugar and three phosphate groups. It carries energy around the cell to where it’s needed.
The Role of Fat and it's importance in our diet !1 LIPIDS • Lipids are non soluble molecules that include fats, waxes, sterols, & phospholipids. Lipids main function is storing energy, sending chemical messages in cells, and are components in cell membranes. Lipids make up adipose tissue which is a connective tissue that is made up of lipid cells called adipocytes. Lipids can also be metabolized leading to a large amount of ATP (energy in the body) production. When Lipids are broken down they are broken into a glycerol molecule and fatty acids.
With deficiency of aldolase B, fructose continues to be converted to F-1-P and results to a build up. • F-1-P also signals glucokinase to stay in the cell’s cytoplasm and continue to make Glucose-1-phosphate. • Phosphate stores gets depleted slowing ATP synthesis and gluconeogenesis is also delayed leading to a drop in blood sugar • Hypoglycemia hence manifest as nausea and vomiting, lethargy, trembling, coma, sweating, restlessness etc ATP Synthase • ATP synthase as an enzyme gives the cell energy necessary to make ATP (adenosine triphosphate) from ADP and phosphate • This is accomplished by creation of a transmembrane proton gradient as a result of electron transfer by NADH and FADH to the major complexes in electron transfer chain. H+ is pumped across the membrane. • As H+ re-crosses the membrane when the mechanism is reversed, ATP synthase takes the energy from H+ and use it in ATP
Plasma and red blood cells transport substances to or away from cell. White blood cells and platelets are parts of the immune system. Blood plasma is mostly made up of water which is from respiration and is absorbed from the large intestine. Water can also be reabsorbed from the kidney. This is very important as this allows osmosis occurs in our bodies.
Hydrogen Peroxide at high concentrations can be lethal. Catalase is there to help with the processes of breaking it down to assure that this doesn’t happen. The purpose of this lab was to help us understand what happens when an enzyme works with a substrate to make the reaction faster. It was to help show us what the effects of pH and temperature on the enzyme’s reaction. My hypothesis for the experiment was that the optimum temperature for catalase to function is 98.6o F because this is the optimum temperature for the human body.
Athletes using EPO do so to encourage their bodies to produce higher than normal amounts of red blood cells to enhance performance. Synthetic oxygen carriers. These are chemicals that have the ability to carry oxygen. Two examples are: •HBOCs (hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers) •PFCs (perfluorocarbons) Synthetic oxygen carriers have a legitimate medical use as emergency therapy. It is used when a patient needs a blood transfusion but: •human blood is not available •there is a high risk of blood infection •there isn't
Even though hydrogen peroxide is naturally produced by our body as a byproduct of our metabolic process, it is very toxic to our body. Catalase helps to break down hydrogen peroxide so that our body can process it easier. The purpose of this experiment is to determine the amount of oxygen gas produced when different amounts of catalase are introduced to hydrogen peroxide under the same conditions. Hypothesis The amount of gas produced will increase based on the amount of catalase added to the hydrogen peroxide. If more catalase added to the same amount of hydrogen peroxide at the same temperate, the more oxygen gas will be produced.
Having only two ends to be able to react at the same time the reaction would be slow meaning only plants could survive by this type of storage chemicals. This reaction is called hydrolysis, the glycosidic bonds are cleaved by this reaction allowing the individual glucose molecules within starch to break off and release energy when needed, controlled by the