Taking into account the sensuous nature of human beings, Kant states that it is very difficult for a man to be righteous without hope. Immortality guarantees this hope and ensures that there is a place sufficient for the reckoning of happiness in proportion to worthiness to be happy. The postulate of freedom is given a special position among the other two postulates. Freedom is an apriori that we do not understand but we know it as the condition of the moral law which we do know. It is because of freedom that God and Immortality gain objective reality and legitimacy and subjective necessity.
Kant (1724-1804) believed that an awareness of how people ought to live had been given to us by God, and referred to it as the 'highest good' (summum bonum). He also believed we should never use other people for our own advantage, and that the best test for working out if were doing the right thing was to imagine what would happen if everyone else did the same. Freud proposed the theory that children develop a sexual attraction for the parent of the opposite sex to argue against Kant’s moral argument, Freud developed model of the mind there are three parts, the a healthy mind he thought was one where there’s three elements, the id, ego and the super ego , are in harmony and appetite Freud gives the name id to the part of the mind in which human instincts such as desire are often suppressed by our conscious mind, but they can surface throughout dreams. The superego is of the ego. The superego is in some ways similar to the conscious.
PHI-112-003 Essay #1 03-01-13 Aristotle Nichomachean Ethics After reading the Nichomachean Ethics, we come across three questions: Why does Aristotle say that happiness is the ultimate goal of human activity? What does Aristotle mean when we meet the “mean” between excess and deficiency in the virtues? And what is the distinction between prudence and scientific knowledge? These three questions correlate with each other. Yes, Aristotle did say that happiness is complete in itself; he is saying that the ultimate goal in the end is happiness, but in order for us to reach this final goal we must exercise virtues because happiness depends on the cultivation of virtue.
Kant states that a decision is only morally justified when it is good in itself, regardless of its consequences and so a good will is necessary. Kant believes that a good will conforms to practical reasoning. This is due to the fact that if we all have the same
Duty can be explained by Kant as “act only according to that maxim by which you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law”, meaning that you should only act in a way that you would want the rest of society to act. Trough out a person’s lifetime they will perform a countless amount of actions, but of those actions, the majority are done from inclination, and not from duty. According to Kant that would mean that no one has great moral worth. I disagree with Kant, because I believe that acts that are done from inclination are more morally worthy as those that are
It is not far-fetched to wonder if Willy himself had a bad encounter with cheating as a young boy, or if it is by his own recognizance that he believed that it was alright to cheat and steal. This ideology that Willy presents is shown greatly by the lesson he presents to his sons; cheating and stealing is okay. Willy Loman teaches his sons that cheating and stealing is okay because he himself believes that. When one of his sons steals equipment from his school he congratulates his son and tells him that if he were his coach he would take that as having dedication. Willy asks his neighbor to take a state test for one of his sons because he wants his son to get a good grade.
In the flashback, Willy gives his sons a punching bag. He also condones Biff’s stealing of a football and doesn’t encourage them to study as much as they should. He emphasizes being well liked. After the flashback, Happy talks with Willy and asks him why he didn’t go to New England for his business trip. Willy explains that he almost hit a kid in Yonkers.
Some philosophers claim that virtue ethics and utilitarianism derive from the human nature that necessarily seeks happiness. In utilitarianism, an action is morally appropriate only as long as the action is team-oriented and such an action seeks the wellbeing of the group. The end of utilitarianism is the greatest good for the greatest number of people. Utilitarianism fits the moral inclinations of many people (Boylan, 2009). Virtue
The boy protects his father when his mother speaks badly of him. The young boy is naive and ignores the fathers lack of responsibility. This keeps the boys hope of becoming the idyllic father one day intact The relationship between the real father and his son is really controlled by expectations and the idyllic figure a father is to his son. We get the impression of the father´s lack of responsibility and capability of handling a child, through the mother’s comments on the father. The dad´s answers to the euphoric boy aren’t encouraging
In order to be morally perfect both good and evil must exist outside of God so that he can choose it. The only way for a being to be morally perfect is for an evil to exist that is not chosen. If God destroys all evil, moral perfection becomes impossible because the choice not to do evil will no longer exist. If God is omnipotent, omniscient , and morally perfect he is constrained not to destroy all evil by his own definition of existence. The property or constraint of being morally perfect is as important as omnipotence.