What arguments would a sociologist use to counter the idea that “Biology is destiny”? The idea that “biology is destiny” is an intrinsic element of what is known as the genetic self, the nature part of the nature or nurture debate. A sociologist will use points with grounds in social influences on the self to argue that rather than biology, there are other elements such as socialization that affect how we behave and are “destined” to be. This paper demonstrates the ideas and research of several sociologists to counter the ‘destiny of biology’ as it were, to show that development and behaviour are not pre-determined by genetics but instead by other, social-related factors, and goes on to level the argument with the notion that perhaps both are mutually influential on one another in the outcome of the self. Determinism is the philosophical doctrine that all events, including human action, are ultimately determined by causes external to the will.
What contributed to the “crisis in social psychology” and what was the outcome? Social psychology is a blend between the discipline of psychology and sociology. Usually, within a psychological field a researcher would look at the individual; cognitions, emotions and attitudes, compared to a sociological perspective of people in groups or crowds; demography, the impact of society on them and social inequalities. Social psychology aims to combine these two, the relationship between the individual and society as a whole. Allport, in an attempt to define social psychology said it scientifically tried to explain the cognitions of the individual (for example behaviours) and how they are “influenced by the actual, imagined or implied presence of human beings” (Allport, 1954).
Social Psychology Definition Paper 1 Social Psychology Definition Paper September 11, 2012 Social Psychology Definition Paper 2 Social interaction plays a major role in defining social psychology because social psychology includes areas that include: psychology, evolutionary theories, and physiology. These areas according to Harold, (2000) are components of uncultivated areas of the social sciences. The principles of natural selection and adaptation can explain the biological theories that explain human hair color to choices for reproducing. At the same time sociology explains the choices of social structuring and how humans organize socially. However, social psychology has the job of explaining what people think about, how the thought affect people, and how the thoughts will interact with each other on the biological, psychological, and social levels (Myers, 2008).
Social Influences on Behavior Erika Whitacre PSY300 Betsy Ferronato July 7, 2014 Social Influences on Behavior Social psychology is the study of human behavior is response to other people and social situations. Within this study, factors contributing to the shift in behavior when around peers include self concept, social cognition, theory of attribution, social influence, group processes, prejudice and discrimination, interpersonal process, aggression, attitudes, as well as stereotypes. Social psychologists examine how these factors and conditions contribute to the behavior, feelings, thoughts, intentions, and goals of an individual within a group setting (McLeod, 2007). Humans are social by nature and learn through observation as well as instinct. This is apparent through the differences in culture and how that produces difference of opinion, attire, family dynamic and verbal communication.
Behavior means the manner of conducting oneself anything that an organism does involving action and response to stimulation the response of an individual, group, or species to its environment the way in which someone behaves; an instance of such behavior the way in which something functions or operates. How do attitudes form? Attitudes form as a result of an experience. Social roles and social norms can have a strong influence on attitudes. Social roles relate to how people are expected to behave in a particular role or context.
The impact on the personality of the individual, it has the characteristics of participation in the life of the community. The variety of contacts, relationships and active participation in the life of the surrounding general give shape to the human personality. There are two types of social structure, macro and micro which allows the individual to notice, whatever man is constantly in contact, which affects the shape of humans’ personality. One of the most important perspectives of sociological theories is the distinction between structural and social action. Structural action, in other words structuralism, is a perspective which is concerned with the overall structure of society and sees individual behavior molded by social institutions like the family, the educations, the mass media and work.
7. Evaluate Social Identity Theory, making reference to relevant studies Social Identity theory was developed by Tajfel (1979) to explain the relationship between social groups. Tajfel believed that social identity is the part of one’s self concept that is driven from the membership of a certain social group they belong to, which also contribute to one’s self-esteem. Examples of social identities may include racial group, nationality, social group and sports group. The three fundamental cognitive processes underlying social identity theory include categorization of our groups and other groups, identification of ourselves with the values and behavior of our groups, and comparison between us and other groups.
Since then social influence has become a field of study devoted to discovering the principles that determine our beliefs, create attitudes, and move us to action. Two forms of social influence are conformity (majority influence) and minority influence. Conformity is where a larger group of people change the behaviour (but not necessarily the attitudes and beliefs) of an individual or smaller group while minority influence is where a small group or an individual change the behaviour and usually the beliefs of an individual. The difference is both in the size of the ‘group’ causing the influence and the type of change it creates in the individual (compliance or conversion). As stated above majority influence is when adapt the behaviour, attitudes or values of the majority after being exposed to their values or behaviour.
There are two major aspects in regards to the sociological perspective, the first being interaction between social structure and an individual and the idea of two levels of analysis. When it comes to the interaction of social structure and the individual, sociologists tend to concentrate not so much on the characteristics of an individuals behavior but rather on the precedents that are collective amongst individuals in regards to society and groups around them. The key to grasping sociology comes from the inevitability and repetition, which are seen in customary social behaviors throughout society and individuals. Social structures are socially embodied in the actions, thoughts, beliefs, and long-lasting temperaments of individual human beings. The typical being often has a
According to psychologist Gordon Allport, social psychology is a discipline that uses scientific methods "to understand and explain how the thought, feeling and behavior of individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined or implied presence of other human beings" (1985). It is important to note that social psychology is not just about looking at social influences. Social perception and social interaction are also vital to understanding social behavior. Emergence of Social Psychology as a discipline in 20th century Social psychology began to assert its individuality as a discipline with a series of texts written by various authors (e.g., Baldwin, 1897; Bunge, 1903; McDougall, 1919; Orano, 1901), each exploring a variety of social psychological topics such as emotions, morals and individual character. McDougall (1919) argued strongly for the separation of social psychology from sociology and anthropology, while also arguing that social processes should be studied experimentally.