We added anhydrous Sodium Sulfate as a drying agent. To complete, we distilled the cyclohexene and collected the product. Knowing this data, we determined the yield % which is 58.5%. This experiment features the dehydration of cyclohexanol and produce cyclohexene. The acid catalyzed dehydration of cyclohexanol with distillative removal of the resulting cyclohexene from the reaction mixture
Ashley Peccatiello Experiment 7 – Dehydration of 2-Methylclyclohexanol, Tests for Unsaturation, and Gas Chromatography Date Performed: October 25, 2012 Date Written: October 29, 2012 Purpose: To dehydrate 2-methylclyclohexanol to obtain two isomers. To separate the products by simple distillation. To analyze the sample by introducing the technique of gas chromatography and unsaturation tests. Reaction: Figure 1. Overall reaction of the acid-catalyzed dehydration of 2-methylcyclohexanol Figure 2.
b. Once again, place assembly in water bath and begin to heat c. When acetamide has begun to melt, record the temperature. d. Let assembly cool down and record temperature when acetamide begins to recrystallize. e. Repeat process two more times. Data: Data Table 1 | | | Rubbing Alcohol Trial # | Boiling Point | Percent Error | 1 | 79.5 C | 3.52% | 2 | 84.0 C | 1.90% | 3 | 83.5 C | 1.30% | Data Table 2 | | | | Acetamide Trial # | Melting Point | Freezing Point | Percent Error (Melting Point) | 1 | 79.5 C | 57.5 C | 3.50% | 2 | 80.5 C | 59.5 C | 0.60% | 3 | 78.0 C | 61.0 C | 3.70% | Observations: It was observed that thermometer placement could affect the readings in the water bath.
Determine ( a) The limiting reactant ( b) The percentage of excess reactant ( c) The degree of completion ( d) The percentage conversion based on Sb2 S 3 ( e) The y ield of k g Sb produced/ kg Sb 2S 3 fed to the reactor. Prob.3 A common method used in manufacturing sodium hypochlorite bleach is by the reaction C l2 + 2 NaOH = NaC l + NaOCl + H2 O C hlorine gas is bubbled through an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide, after which the desired product is separated from the sodium chloride ( a by product of the reaction). A water NaOH solution that contains 520.5 k g of pure NaOH is reacted with 386.8 k g of g aseous chlorine. The NaOC l formed weighs 280.9 k g. (a) What was the limiting reactant? ( b) What was the percentag e excess of the excess reactant used?
Once a solute is added to the solvent, solute molecules occupy the molecular surface space of the liquid, swing the evaporation process. If the solute is dissolved in a solvent, the number of solvent molecules near the surface decreases, thus vapor pressure of the solvent decreases. Why does this property change when the solute is increased? One use for vapor pressure lowering is in distillation. Distillation is a liquid purification process using heating and cooling.
Experiment 5: Preparation of Cyclohexene- Acid Catalyzed Elimination of Cyclohexanol Ball State University Organic Chemistry Lab 231 (Sec. 5) Dr. Bock/Daniel Miller Tiffany Raber 5 November 2012 Purpose: To prepare an alkene by an elimination reaction of an alcohol in the presence of sulfuric acid as a catalyst to produce a successful yield and desired results for the purity of the alkene. Introduction: The dehydration of an alcohol such as cyclohexanol is a useful technique for generating alkenes. The success of this reaction relies on a dehydration, such as the presence of a strong acid (sulfuric acid). Because this reaction is reversible, a fractional distillation is necessary to produce cyclohexene, water, and some impurities and a simple distillation is followed to further purify the product.
This is done by a procedure called refluxing. Refluxing is the process of heating a product to the boiling point and re-condensing the vapor continuously. The procedure halogenation is the addition of a halogen to a π bond forming a halo alkane. In this synthetic reaction bromine was used in the process called bromination. The bromine is acting first like an electrophile, and then after bromine has broken the π bond, a carbocation has formed, and a bromide ion has been created, the bromide ion then acts as the nucleophile and forms a bond with the carbocation.
The relative reactivity of the hydrogens H1, H2, H3 , and H4 were 0.37, 1.4, 2.9, and 1.0 respectively. The radical chlorination of 1-chlorobutane follows the radical reaction mechanism. Abstraction of hydrogen from 1-chlorobutane by the chlorine radical occurs in the first part of the propagation step. Depending on which hydrogen is abstracted by the chlorine radical, determines which product is formed. Hydrogens on the alkene have different reactivity which determines which isomer is favored.
By heating and mixing this solution, hydrogen gas was formed and vented through the vacuum filtration device. This mixture was then filtered twice in an attempt to purify the solution and remove residue from the break down of aluminum. After the solution had any impurities removed, it was cooled to room temperature and reacted with sulfuric acid and distilled water. During this step, it was important to add the acid slowly and avoid forming solids (this idea will be discussed later on). The insoluble solids were then filtered out using the same procedure previously mentioned.
Chemguide – questions ELIMINATION MECHANISMS 1. In the presence of sodium hydroxide solution, 2-bromopropane can undergo either a substitution reaction or an elimination reaction. A mechanism for the substitution reaction is A mechanism for the elimination reaction is a) In the substitution reaction, the hydroxide ion is acting as a nucleophile, attracted by the slightly positive carbon atom attached to the bromine. How is the hydroxide ion acting in the elimination reaction? b) Use the mechanism to help you explain exactly what is happening during the elimination reaction.