| Quality Control for the Athenium Baking Soda Company: | A Self Directed Experiment | | Introduction Sodium bicarbonate or sodium hydrogen carbonate, NaHCO3, is commonly referred to and known as baking soda. Baking soda has many uses and applications (e.g., as a leavening agent in cooking, as an acid-base neutralizer in the laboratory, as a cleaning agent in the home and office, and in personal hygiene and medical products). Baking soda is primarily prepared by the Solvay process, which is the reaction of sodium chloride, ammonia, and carbon dioxide in water. In industrial practice, this reaction is typically carried out by passing concentrated brine (i.e., salt water containing a high concentration of sodium chloride (NaCl)) through two towers. In the first tower, ammonia (NH3) bubbles up through the brine, where it is absorbed.
Quality Control for the Athenium Baking Soda Company A Self-Directed Experiment 16 April 2012 INTRODUCTION The Athenium Baking Soda Company has begun producing baking soda (sodium bicarbonate, or sodium hydrogen carbonate). NH4HCO3 + NaCl ==> NaHCO3 + NH4Cl Due to the high concentration of the brine solution that is used to generate the product, contaminants are often present in the finished product as chloride compounds. The contaminants may be detected when the finished baking soda product is dried and filtered. PURPOSE: In this experiment, we will be employing quality control by analyzing the composition and purity of the contaminated baking soda samples. To perform this experiment, we will utilize emission spectra, titrations, and thermal gravimetric analysis, using knowledge from Experiments 10, 4, Titrations of Na2CO3 and NAHCO3 by HCl (hydrochloric acid) will be performed to determine the concentration of HCl, as well as the number of moles of HCl present within the sample of baking soda.
The familiar volcano experiment that we all know, mixing baking soda and vinegar, is used to create a bubbly reaction. In the lab, two substances are mixed and create sodium acetate, carbon dioxide, and water (CH3COOH). The purpose of the lab was to predict how much product was made from the chemical reaction, using stoichiometry. If there is a certain amount of baking soda, mixed with 50 mL of vinegar, then the percent yield will be able to be predicted. The percent yield gained was calculated from the amount that was recovered from the experiment.
Quality Control for the Athenium Baking Soda Company April 16, 2012 Introduction: In a sample of baking soda, determine the percent by mass of NaHCO3. Also, determine if any chemical impurities are present, the chemical nature of the impurities, and the quantity of each present. Baking soda, also known as sodium hydrogen carbonate or sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), is a naturally occurring compound with a wide range of uses. The diverse uses of baking soda include its presence in cleaning products, human food and beverages, animal food, and food processing, pharmaceuticals, chemical and industrial processes, water treatment, fire extinguishers, and more (chemicalland21). Because baking soda is a natural compound, using it in these products can replace potentially environmentally harmful products.
In school, you probably tried an experiment where you mixed baking soda with vinegar to see it foam. That's what is happening in baking powder. If you look at the ingredients for Alka-Seltzer, you will find that it contains citric acid and sodium bicarbonate (baking soda). When you drop the tablet in water, the acid and the baking soda react -- this produces the fizz. You can think of an Alka-Seltzer tablet as compressed baking powder with a little aspirin mixed in.
NaHCO3 (sodium bicarbonate - baking soda) and HCl (hydrochloric acid). The bubbles formed are carbon dioxide. HCl (hydrochloric acid) and BTB (bromothymol blue). Bromothymol blue is one of many acid-base indicators. What color do you observe?
9) The number of moles of H2CO3 in the reaction NaHCO3 + C2H4O2 NaC2H3O2 + H2CO3 is also the number of moles of NaHCO3. 10) Calculate the number of grams of sodium bicarbonate by multiplying the number of moles of sodium bicarbonate by its molar mass. OBSERVATIONS BEFORE REACTION Total Mass: 165.93 g Total Mass: 165.93 g Mass: Alka Seltzer Tablet: 3.82 g Beaker + Vinegar: 162.11 g Temperature: 20.9 °C DURING REACTION Observations: Alka Seltzer is fizzing and dissolving into the vinegar Gas is being released as bubbles form; it’s carbon dioxide Looks like a nice glass of frothy beer AFTER REACTION Observations:
After a series of washes to remove any impurities, the compound was dried and decanted, cholesterol was synthesized. Melting points were obtained from commercial cholesterol, dibromocholesterol, and synthesized cholesterol using the Fisher-John Melting Point Apparatus. A TLC plate was completed, spotting commercial cholesterol, dibromocholesterol, and synthesized cholesterol. The silica gel was used as the stationary phase and the ethyl acetate: hexane (30:70) was used as the mobile phase. The silver nitrate test was conducted to test for the functional group of 2°and 3° alkyl halides as positive and negative controls were used.
Liquids and Solids Purpose: The goal of this experiment is to be able to identify melting/boiling points of substances. We can then use these methods to identify unknown substances because of constants in melting/boiling points. Procedure: 1. Boiling Point a. Begin by adding 1 mL of rubbing alcohol to test tube and attach a thermometer to it.