Stereotypes lead people to expect certain actions from members of social groups. These stereotype-based expectations may lead to self-fulfilling prophecies, in which one's inaccurate expectations about a person's behavior, through social interaction, prompts that person to act in stereotype-consistent ways, thus confirming one's erroneous expectations and validating the stereotype. (Page 94–97) Often time’s people are fairly ignorant of the customs and
Judging people without knowing them will lead us to make false assumptions, which is a dehumanizing act. They can be positive or negative, misleading in both cases. Although stereotypes facilitate us in responding quickly to situations by enhancing our understanding, they are nevertheless grounded in false assumptions and distorted information, influenced by prejudices, and disregard individual differences. Advocates of stereotyping argue that prior stereotypical knowledge aids them in understanding and interacting effectively, boosting their confidence level. For them, having a general idea is better than having no idea at all.
Myers (2005), explains, “Displacement is the redirection of aggression to a target other than the source of frustration. Generally, the new target is a safer or more socially acceptable target.” (p. 386). It is difficult to understand why people intentionally cause harm to others; however, it is even more complex to comprehend why an innocent third person would be targeted to express frustration. Several theories have emerged on the subject and they give us better insight into the psychology of displaced aggression. Conventional psychology suggested that displaced aggression was closely connected with low-self esteem.
Even though social learning approach and behaviorist approach were made to make us understand how human behaviour works either by modeling or rewards and punishments from environment that we live on, they not just have advantages but also have disadvantages. Some of the strengths of the social learning approach is that it’s an experiment therefore it's suitable when trying to measure human behaviour, we can easy understand his accurate method, realistic view of people and concern with the social implications in human behaviour. One of the biggest disadvantages of this approach is that does not take into account physical and mental changes of the person and does not take in account that people can see one only situation from different point of view for example some people think that be a musician is something rewarded, but other may think that is a loss of time. On the other hand we have the behaviourist approach that suggest that the human behaviour depends of what we learn by association or as a result of reinforcement, this theory has successfully applied classical and operant conditioning to its theories, we can easily understand is accurate method, for example one the experiments are objective, measurable and observable. An example of this is Bandura's bobo doll study of aggression with children.
An honest mistake is forgivable. However, when someone purposely puts their reputation at risk, by choosing to jeopardize their integrity, the consequences should reflect the severity of the circumstances. By doing so, it would influence other sailors to think twice before following the same path, which would yield better watchstanders, and a more trustworthy
Aggression is an action or series of actions where the aim is to cause harm to another person or object. Social learning theory states that aggressive behaviour is learned directly (operant conditioning) and indirectly (vicarious). For example, if someone gets something they want when they’re aggressive the action will be reinforced therefore likely to be repeated. And if a person sees their role model rewarded for an aggressive action the observer is likely to imitate that model. The model is most likely to be imitated if: the model is similar to the observer, the model is admired and/or the observer as low self-esteem.
This is more likely if the behaviour is positively reinforced. The other way is through indirect experience; this is when an individual learns behaviour to imitate, which is based on reinforcements that they see others receiving. An example of this would be if we see someone being punished for aggression we are not likely to copy it. If we see someone praised we may be more likely to imitate them. This theory acknowledges that there are some cognitive elements to being able to observe and imitate behaviours.
noise acts as a barrier to effective interpersonal communication because of interference with the intended message while the sender is trying to get their message across. Some others include individual perceptual errors and lying and distortion. I think when it comes to looking at the drawbacks some of it would include some personality factors about the employee, and also some benefits of informal communication in an agency is making friends that has the similar qualities in personality and likes and dislikes and would like to continue a mutual friendship with them. 7. What impact do these informal lines of communication and authority have on the work of the agency (achieving the mission)?
It is generally assumed that substance abuse clients are products of a broken family structure and are prone to criminal behavior. Thus warranting the need for group facilitators to filter out most all and/or any negative energy and replace it with the positive. After-all the goal is to modify their behavior, what better way can one began to foster positive reinforcement then to provide the initial environment for such. However, there is always a chance that different claims and/or viewpoints can present challenges. For example, one might find that providing positive energy support for clients is not priority; thus, this can lead to more than just a difference of opinion.
George Moore once said “The difficulty in life is the choice...” In other words, one faces many situations throughout life in which a choice must be made. Typically, the choice made defines the character and alters or affects the person’s path in life. Making a careless decision has the potential to destroy everything the character stands for and can lead to the decline of the individual’s sense of direction. However, a well thought out choice can liberate the soul from discontent even when the choice involves hurting others for the sake of saving yourself. I agree with this quote since reacting on impulse in a difficult situation is a lot simpler than thinking your next step through and basing your actions upon filtered and well thought out options.