Excel Essay

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How to Use a Data Spreadsheet: Excel One does not necessarily have special statistical software to perform statistical analyses. Microsoft Office Excel can be used to run statistical procedures. Although in some respects Excel is not as preferable for data analyses as IBM SPSS, it is very userfriendly with simpler statistical procedures. This appendix describes how to use Excel to execute basic statistical calculations. Data from the 2004 version of the General Social Survey (GSS) is used for examples. This Appendix is based on Excel 2007 version, which differs in certain aspects from Excel’s previous versions. The most notable change that affects the exercises presented in this appendix concerns the pivot table feature. BASIC PROCEDURES Starting Excel: To start Excel using Windows, click on the Start button at the bottom left corner of the screen. Under Programs locate and click the Microsoft Excel icon. The layout of the Excel program has changed substantially for the Microsoft Office 2007 edition compared to its predecessors. Commands are now grouped in ribbons that are accessed by clicking on a specific tab. Thus, the Home tab grants access to a ribbon of several command groups: Clipboard, Font, Alignment, Number, Styles, Cells, and Editing. Once the program is started you will see a Worksheet Area that consists of cells forming columns and rows. Rows are identified by numbers, and columns are identified by letters. Consequently, each cell has its own unique address – a combination of letters and numbers. For example, cell C6 is in column C, row6. The dark rim around a cell means that the cell is highlighted or active. You can highlight a range of cells by clicking and dragging the cursor across several adjacent cells. At the bottom left of the screen you will find worksheet tabs labeled Sheet 1, Sheet 2, etc. You can rename these worksheets, add additional

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