Functionalism, Marxism and Feminism are common theories. Using the family and education system as examples, evaluate their effectiveness in explaining the social system. In this assignment, I am going to explain the theories of Functionalism, Marxism and Feminism. I will give examples that expand the definitions and show that such ideologies still have an impact on the society we live in. Functionalism is a macro theory, which looks at society as a whole rather than focuses on each individual.
This supports the functionalist view that the education system prepares young people for their future work roles. Functionalists believe that the role of education is to create a sense of solidarity which will benefit society; they say the purpose of education and it's relationship to the economy is to provide specialist skills to equip people for the workforce. If people are well prepared for work after leaving school, this will benefit society as a whole. They believe that the brightest will take the top jobs and the rest will be allocated a job role that suits their skills. Furthermore, item A also says, "sociologists see the education system as performing a vital role in modern societies."
Assess sociological explanations of changes in the status of childhood Social construction is the way that something is created through individual, social and cultural interpretations, perception and actions of people. Childhood has not stayed the same throughout history and varies in different cultures, so it is not possible that childhood is biological and therefore it must be socially constructed for a particular time, for a particular societies needs. Eidenstadt is one sociologist who believes that childhood is socially constructed and is therefore culturally specific. Bilton supports this argument that childhood is experienced differently in the western world compared to the east; the western world has childhood while the eastern world still sees children working. Benedict has suggested that in simpler pre-industrial societies there are three main differences in the ways that children are treated compared to modern western societies, claiming that responsibility is taken at an earlier age, for example Punch’s study in Bolivia found that children from around the age of 5 are expected to work.
Education is currently one of the most important parts of our lives. It teaches skills needed for work, but also socialises students and passes on values. Education also develops a shared culture by socialising students together. Functionalists agree with the view that education integrates individuals into society’s shared culture, it passes core value onto students. Education functions as a key mechanism which glues children together and helps them by giving them a value consensus through the “hidden curriculum”.
This shift in the location of work continued to escalate throughout the era, and even somewhat to this day. Moving from the subsistence farm to the factory changed everything though. Moving into wage labor meant that there was more reliance on others than the previously almost self-reliant farmers. Factory work also led to a concept of leisure time, which had never existed before on the farm. Factory work had some disadvantages though, for one people began to lose the feeling of self satisfaction from creating things since they often only a part process.
Chapter 13 - “Analyzing Managerial Decisions: Bagby Copy Company MBA 540 Michelle Wilson August 9, 2015 There are many advantages and disadvantages to specific vs. broad task assignment. Assigning specific tasks to workers allows the company to hire specifically based on the ability of the worker to do a very specific job. In this way efficiency can be increased as a worker should be performing the job that he is comparatively best suited to perform and nothing else. Competition amongst workers can also be increased as there is a specific metric to judge by. The cost of training a worker is also reduced as the worker does not have to be trained in every aspect of the company only what he is going to be doing.
Assess sociological explanations of changes in the status of childhood? Childhood is a social construction and varies between times, places and groups. Most sociologists see our ides of childhood as a fairly recent one, the result of industrialisation and other social changes. Modern society constructs childhood as a tie of vulnerability, innocence and segregation from the adult world. The March of progress sociologist believe we live in an increasingly child-centred society.
Furthermore, “33,860” of these kids were exposed to hazardous jobs. One of the main reasons for the employment of children is the demand for fast and cheap production. Nicola Phillips, who works in the Department of Politics at The University of Sheffield, argues that abuse of child labor in private sectors happen because the manufacturing can be done by unskilled workers, meaning that by hiring children, they can spend less on labor cost since all they do is futile work (Phillips et al., 2014). Moreover, Phillips argues that another benefit offered by child labor is the improbability of them creating trade unions to demand higher salaries and better conditions. In other words, a benefit some employers see on child labor is that they
Explain what is meant by the “social construction” of childhood. (2 marks) Sociologists argue that childhood is socially constructed; this means that the characteristics of childhood were influenced and made by the actions of member of society. It only exists because people define it as childhood. Suggest two ways, apart from those mentioned in item 2A, in which government policies and/or laws may shape the experiences of children today. (4 marks) Children are now protected from harm like child abuse.
Assess the view that Industrialisation led to the decline of the extended family and the rise of the nuclear family. Industrialisation is where the country begins to start producing items using factories. This allowed extended families to become wage earners that meant they were able to work for someone else other than their selves and their families which allowed their money to become much more secure as they were getting a fixed amount whereas if they worked from themselves it could be better or worse. This was important as extended families consisted of the children and their parents but also grandparents or aunts and uncles and their children. So having a large family meant everyone had to contribute financially which was much easier as it was less risky and also required the family to become smaller as the children couldn't work due to geographical mobility.