Stratified sampling is commonly used in the scenario described in the assignment spec. It is a reasonable assumption that that the social research who undertakes this study is interested in drawing (statistical) inference about subgroup of the general population. Using stratified sampling with independent strata enables the researcher to collect such information, which would be otherwise lost in a more generalised sampling method. Given the availability of the distinct features of the population of interest, aggregating data across groups provides little benefit. (c) Suppose that the social researcher decided to use gender as a distinct feature.
Unlike questionnaires, they do not give the greater amount of reliability needed to fulfil the data income; nothing can determine a questionnaire has been filled out by the correct person, since that is conducted through writing. Interviews can be created on the spot, especially an unstructured one. This is good for an interviewer because if they accidentally lose their sense of where the question is going, they can rebuild another form of questions on the spot which are more evidential to the data being collected or if the interviewer forgot to add an important type
If the study is qualitative, personal bias can skew the data. Lab study subjects should be debriefed for the reason for the study after participation has ended. The researcher should take responsibility for the safety of the subjects. They should not be subjected to physical or mental abuse. The data reported must not be misrepresented or distorted.
Instrumentally rational action is when a goal is not desirable but an induvidual still works out the best way to reach it. Value rational action is when an individual works towards a goal although doesn't know what the outcome will be. Traditional action is a routine action which is done out of habit whilst affectual action is action which is expressed by emotion. Although Weber takes into account the individual choice and focuses on understanding (meanings) when explaining a persons behaviour the four catergories are hard to apply to real situations. Also as we are our own selves and cannot put ourselves in the shoes of someone else we can never really fully understand someone's actions.
Examine the reasons why some sociologists choose to use structured interviews when conducting research (20 marks) Sociologists use different types of interviews in their research, these ranging from completely structures to completely unstructured interviews. The difference between them lies in how free the interviewer is to vary the questions and how they are asked. A structured interview involves one person asking another person a list of predetermined questions about a carefully-selected topic. The person asking the questions ("the interviewer") is allowed to explain things the interviewee (or "respondent" - the person responding to the questions) does not understand or finds confusing. Moreover structured interviews are like questionnaires; the interviewer is given strict instructions on how to ask the questions.
“Examine the reasons why some sociologists choose to use structured interviews when conducting research” Structured interviews are like questionnaires, as they both involve asking participants a standardised set of questions which are usually closed ended questions with pre-coded answers. However within a structured interview the questions are read out loud to the ‘interviewee’ and the answers given are filled in by the researcher. Structured interviews give quantitative data as the questions have pre-determined answers. This makes them very reliable. This means that structured interviews will appeal to positivists as they like sociological methods which gain reliability, gain quantitative date and can cope with a large sample size.
This open-ended format would permit job incumbents to use their own words and ideas to describe the job. Some debatable issues are the format and degree of structure that a questionnaire should have. Job analysts have their own personal preferences on this matter. There really is no best format for a questionnaire. However, there are a few hints that will make the questionnaire easier to use: keep it as short as possible, keep it simple, and test the questionnaire before using it.
In Newman’s study some possible issues that could have emerged were confidentiality, No harm, Deception and analysis and reporting. Confidentiality could have been an issue because she can identify persons given responses but not to do so publicly. She can ruin someone’s life if someone found out that it was there response. And by that happening she would cross another ethical issue called no-harm. Deception is often used but it is not supposed to be.
This is because they may not want to be recorded and if they find out, you may not be able to use the information gathered. Feedback Feedback is when you give back information of what you have found from your research to those who were involved. This is because they may want to know how their input helped in the outcome of the overall research and find out if the research was a success. Vulnerable People Vulnerable people are those that need to have their feelings handled with special care. You need to address them in a way that will not upset them or make them feel unhappy.